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Attached is the FOA and references used for itWriting a Public Health Grant/Contract Application in Response to an FOA This assignment provides you the opportunity to demonstrate the knowledge you have gained in your MPH program studies. You will now set your sights on the actual grant or contract application process.The FOA associated with this public health intervention will be used as the basis for your grant or contract application. Conduct research, analyze the subject matter, and synthesize your findings to include the following steps in your grant application:Read and analyze all instructions for your chosen grant or contract FOA very precisely to understand the requirements of the application.Using your new knowledge, compile all FOA requirements to be used as references in preparation for your research paper.Develop a 15-20 page research paper, completing the following elements:Identify the name of FOA and organization soliciting bidsProduce a needs assessmentDefine your problem statementIdentify your chosen methodology to address the identified needsDescribe your proposed evaluation planOutline a budget proposal and justificationsIdentify partners to be engagedProvide a conclusionWrite a 15–20-page, double-spaced paper in Word format. Apply APA standards to citation of sources. Your goal is to fully inform your audience about your chosen public health intervention and chosen FOA.Utilize at least 7–10 scholarly sources in your research and be sure to include a references page. Write in a clear, concise, and organized manner; demonstrate ethical scholarship in accurate representation and attribution of sources; and display accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation.Submission Details:Use the following file naming convention: LastnameFirstInitial_W5_A2.doc.





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Public Health Staff Plan
Public Health Staff Plan
Teenage pregnancy is a common public health issue in the US and engaging suitable
interventions will be meaningful in reducing its prevalence. Pieces of evidence make it clear that
engaging public health education will be ultimate to see a reduction in the incidence of the
problem. While this problem is common among the teenagers where those who are highly at risk
entails the female teenagers, it would be advisable to implement the intervention in a school
setting because it presents a platform where the teenagers can engage each other. Implementing
the intervention in a school setting will ensure that most of the teenagers learn about the risks
based on the problem and so, restrict themselves from engaging themselves in activities that
trigger the concern (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019). That said, this
assignment presents a public health staffing plan illustrating the needed staff both full and parttime staff that will be tasked in implementing the selected intervention. It concludes with an
organizational chart that corresponds to the plan.
Staffing Plan
Goal Determinants

It is necessary to find out if the intents of the staffing plan focus on addressing the
identified problem and this means that it is appropriate to determine if the goals set are
meaningful in addressing the problem.

As the prime issue, the public health staffing seeks to address, it is appropriate to find out
if engaging public health education will be thoughtful in reducing the prevalence of the
problem in the US

This can be achieved by looking at the prevalence of the problem before engaging the
intervention in a certain region and comparing the prevalence of the same problem after
engaging the intervention in the same region.

Centers for Disease Control and Intervention (CDC) reported that in 2019 the incidence
of teen pregnancies among the whites was 14%. Suppose the white teenagers were
engaged in this intervention and later noted that there is a reduction in the problem, then
it will be apparent that the intervention is impactful (Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention, 2019).
Factors impacting Personnel Availability

The predominance of the teenage pregnancy in the US suggests the need to engage public
health staff who will facilitate in creating a suitable intervention that will see a reduction
in the prevalence of the problem.

As compared to other ethnic communities in the US, American Indians records the
highest rate of teenage pregnancy 32.9% which suggests the need to engage more public
health staff among this population segments as compared to other teenage populations in
the US.

Culture could play a vital role in prompting variability of the problem in various races
and this means that the public health staff should be involved in educating the teenagers
how their respective cultures could predispose them to the problem.

Lifestyle could also be another cause for teenage pregnancy and so, it would be necessary
to deploy more public health staff to areas where lifestyle seem to be a common cause of
teenage pregnancy in the area (Garney et al., 2019).
Organizational Functional Needs

While not everyone engaged in the staff planning may be aware of the intensity of the
problem, it may be necessary to challenge every member of the staff to research about the
problem about the prevalence of the concern in the region.

Sensitizing the teenagers about the risks based on the problem will challenge the trainer
to inflict his staff with requisite knowledge and skills on how to share their knowledge
regarding the matter to the teenagers.

The public health staff will also learn how to perform the sensitization program on
Conducting a Gap Analysis and Creating a Plan

The resources needed to facilitate the implementation of the intervention are inadequate
to facilitate prenatal care

The community also neglects the teenage mother and her child while they need the
community desperately following the inexperience mother who is unable to take proper
care for her child

As a way of creating the plan, it will be integral to solicit for resources that will meet the
demands of the teenage mother and her child

It is also necessary to inform the community about the need for embracing the teenage
mother and her child

Based on the organizational chart demonstrated below, the public health superintendent
will be providing administrative support to the various sections based on public health.

The environmental health officer will be tasked in enforcing public health legislation
alongside environmental concerns.

The Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Officer will be tasked in coordinating
activities that have been piloted towards advancing the health as well as preventing
alongside managing communicable as well as non-communicable diseases.

The Public Health Research Officer will be involved in researching the problem and
reporting its incidence-based in a certain area as well as its intensity to the unit.

The Public Health Information Needs will be involved in informing the public about the
gravity of the public health concern (Fuller et al., 2018).

Similarly, to the Public Health Officer, the Public Health Nurse will also be involved in
presenting meaningful information regarding the public health concern to the public
Public Health Staff Plan Organizational Chart
Public health superintendent
Public health information needs
Environmental health officer
Public health research officer
Public health nurse
Health promotion and
disease prevention officer
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). The public health system and the 10 essential
public health services. National Public Health Performance Standards. Office for State,
Tribal, Local and Territorial Support, last modified, 29.
Fuller, T. R., White, C. P., Chu, J., Dean, D., Clemmons, N., Chaparro, C., … & King, P. (2018).
Social determinants and teen pregnancy prevention: exploring the role of nontraditional
partnerships. Health promotion practice, 19(1), 23-30.
Garney, W., Wilson, K., Nelon, J., Muraleetharan, D., McLeroy, K., & Baletka, D. M. (2019).
Ecological Approaches to Teen Pregnancy Prevention: An Examination of EvidenceBased Interventions. Health promotion practice, 20(4), 494-501.
Running Head: DISCUSSION
Discussion: Identifying the Approach
Institutional Affiliation
Unplanned pregnancies and teenagers engaging in early sexual activities is one of the
major serious issues experienced in modern society, and especially in developing nations.
Studies have shown that unintended pregnancy makes 33 percent to 82 percent of the teenage
pregnancies globally (Vázquez-Nava et al., 2013). The negative impacts of unplanned
pregnancies among teenagers include girls getting married at an early age, dropping out of
school to take care of their newborns, practicing unsafe abortions, and being exposed to sexually
transmitted diseases such as chlamydia and HPV. The proposed remedy for this issue is
increasing sexual health awareness and offering contraceptives among youths (Oringanje et al.,
2016). Studies have shown that a combination of sexual health education and providing
contraceptives reduced unplanned pregnancies among teenagers significantly.
A holistic approach is used when planning for the strategy. After familiarizing ourselves
with the three stages of the grant’s lifecycle, the next step is to write a letter of commitment
(LOC) and Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) that includes the roles of each partner in
addressing the issue of unplanned pregnancies (Gemayel & Martin, 2017). After completing the
LOC and MOA, the next step is to review notice of funding opportunity (NOFOs) to establish
eligibility. The step is developing the internal strategy. The internal strategy constitutes the
organization’s structure, program, expertise, history, project fit for mission, target audience,
special needs of audience, activities, staff, and board.
After collecting all the necessary information including grant application requirements
and guidelines, the “cause-effect scenario” is used when preparing the necessary elements of a
grant application. This involves identifying the affected population (teenagers, girls), factors
contributing to unplanned pregnancies, and offering suggestions (Gemayel & Martin, 2017).
After identifying the “cause-effect”, the next step is working with partners to highlight the “grey
areas” that need immediate interventions. Finally, the partners would work together to ensure
that necessary elements of the grant application (introduction, institution background, program
objectives and goals, methods, evaluation, future funding and sustainability, and budget) are
incorporated in the plan.
The key partners to work together when developing this grant application include
physicians, social workers, two nurses, and a financial assistant. The social workers offer
strategies on how counseling and education of teenagers in school should be conducted. The
financial assistant creates and guides on the budget needed to support the process. The
physicians offer suggestions on medicinal management or the quantity and types of
contraceptives needed (Fox & Barfield, 2016). Nurses offer suggestions on how to monitor
changes after contraceptives have been administered. The interdisciplinary partnerships are
critical in ensuring that all the key areas are considered when developing grant application. All
partners would be encouraged to exercise due diligence and dedicate themselves fully to the
A holistic approach is critical when designing a grant application process to be used to
address the issue of unplanned pregnancies and teenagers engaging in early sexual activities. A
holistic approach is essential because it factors in the major variables such as eligibility,
requirements, the role of each partner, and internal strategy. The approach offers an opportunity
to prudently and diligently examine whether the organization will meet the grant application
guidelines. It brings various stakeholders together and considers all their inputs. Through the use
of a holistic approach, it is undeniable that a combination of interventions (education and
contraceptives) will reduce unintended teenage pregnancies. Overall, the success of this
approach depends on the willingness and abilities of the partners.
Gemayel, R., & Martin, S. J. (2017). Writing a successful fellowship or grant application. The
FEBS journal, 284(22), 3771-3777.
Fox, J., & Barfield, W. (2016). Decreasing Unintended Pregnancy. JAMA, 316(8), 815. doi:
Oringanje, C., Meremikwu, M., Eko, H., Esu, E., Meremikwu, A., & Ehiri, J. (2016).
Interventions for preventing unintended pregnancies among adolescents. Cochrane
Database of Systematic Reviews. doi: 10.1002/14651858.cd005215.pub3
Vázquez-Nava, F., Vázquez-Rodriguez, C., Saldívar-González, A., Vázquez-Rodríguez, E.,
Córdova-Fernández, J., Felizardo-Ávalos, J., & Sánchez-Márquez, W. (2013). Unplanned
Pregnancy in Adolescents: Association with Family Structure, Employed Mother, and
Female Friends with Health-Risk Habits and Behaviors. Journal of Urban Health, 91(1),
176-185. doi: 10.1007/s11524-013-9819-6
Running head: GRANT PROPOSAL
A Grant Proposal to the Federal Government on Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive health
A Grant Proposal to the Federal Government on Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive health
There are approximately 1 billion individuals between 10 and 19 years living the world
today. Nearly 70 per cent of them are living in developing countries under different conditions
from the previous generations. They have greater access to formal education, technology and
social media, which exposes them to more exposure to new ideas at a young age. A combination
of these factors results in engagement in sexual activity at a young age, causing early marriages
or even unplanned pregnancies. The dangers of engaging in early sexual activities could also
have health concerns in the era of HIV/AIDS. The government should be at the forefront of
promoting health education to reduce the impacts of sexual activity among adolescents.
Adolescent sexual and reproductive health involves the development of initiative that
educate individuals on the benefits of abstinence as a method of birth control. Nevertheless,
those who cannot abstain should be taught the various family planning techniques available so
that they can prevent unplanned pregnancies. Vázquez-Nava et al. (2014), estimate that
unplanned pregnancy constitutes between 33 and 82% of the adolescent pregnancies across the
world. The impacts of unplanned pregnancy vary depending on the family support of the
individual with a majority of the students dropping out of school to take care of their newborns.
This is common for students from low-income families and they are more likely to transfer
poverty to future generations. A significant portion of the adolescents who get pregnant end up
getting married. According to the Science Daily (2017), some of the adverse effects of early
marriages include pregnancy-related complications associated with the young body. Adolescents
engaging in early marriages may also be susceptible to malnutrition, poor mental health and
domestic violence. They may also have limited access to contraception and therefore having
many children which increases poverty levels. Even worse is the fact that the trend may follow
for their daughters, who may also marry young resultantly expanding the level of poverty along
the family line.
Adolescents who find themselves pregnant may end up aborting their unborn children.
While most states in the United States have legalized abortion, many developing nations
continue to term abortion as illegal. This often sees pregnant teens resulting in unsafe
mechanisms to abort their unborn children. A study conducted by Ushie, Izugbara, Mutua and
Kabiru (2018), reveals that the complications associated with unsafe abortions are some of the
leading causes of mortality in mothers in sub-Saharan Africa. The research utilized a sample of
1145 adolescents with a diagnosis of incomplete, missed, inevitable, complete or septic abortion
for the past one month. The results revealed that eight per cent of the participants had a previous
induced abortion. 46% of the participants sought abortion at an advanced age, and this
contributed to a high rate of post-abortion complications. The Centers for Disease Prevention and
Control (2018), acknowledges that youths between the ages of 15 and 24 years are at a high risk
of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases such as chlamydia and HPV for females. Despite these
high rates of STDs among the youths, it remains difficult for them to receive STD prevention
services due to long waiting lines, inadequate funds for the services, method of specimen
collection, embarrassment associated with seeking treatment for STDs and the conflict between
the clinic and school hours.
Strategic activities
The factors discussed above reveal that there is an urgent need to develop strategies
directed towards the promotion of adolescent sexual and reproductive health. The government
should offer resources geared towards the promotion of sexual education in schools to ensure
that adolescents understand the risks associated with early sexual activity so that they can change
their behavior to avert these risks (World Health Organization, 2009). Health and reproductive
education should also focus on the various contraceptives available so that girls can protect
themselves from unplanned pregnancies. The government could even distribute free condoms to
students so that they can adopt responsible sexual behavior. The government should also
collaborate with the health sector for the development of friendly health services for adolescents.
These could include interventions to reach the marginalized, responses to generate community
acceptance, and facility and out of facility-based interventions (Denno, Hoopes and ChandraMouli, 2015). Positive Youth Development programs are also necessary for increasing the
awareness of the youths of the dangers associated with irresponsible sexual activity. Gavin,
Catalano and Markham (2010), acknowledge that the introduction of such strategies in schools
will help students to apply the knowledge acquired in sex education programmes. Positive Youth
Development programs also encourage youths to have a positive approach towards the
developmental challenges other than engaging in irresponsible sexual activity.
Advancements in technology have enabled youths to access new ideas and eventually
engaging in early sexual activity. The implication is that there is an increase in adolescent
pregnancy, and this affects their academic performance. Most of the students from low-income
families are forced to drop out of school for the lack of family or financial support. Others result
in early marriages that subject them to a myriad of problems including mental disorders, violence
and a lack of access to contraceptives. Some of the youths may seek unsafe abortion practices
that may result in death or complications during subsequent pregnancies. The government should
intervene in the development of public education programs geared towards addressing the
problem of irresponsible sexual activity among youths. Collaboration with the health sector is
also necessary in the development of safe mechanisms for accessing reproductive healthcare
among adolescents.
Centers for Disease and Prevention Control. (2018). STDs in Adolescents and Young Adults.
Retrieved from
Denno, D. M., Hoopes, A. J., & Chandra-Mouli, V. (2015). Effective strategies to provide
adolescent sexual and reproductive health services and to increase demand and
community support. Journal of adolescent health, 56(1), S22-S41.
Gavin, L. E., Catalano, R. F., & Markham, C. M. (2010). Positive youth development as a
strategy to promote adolescent sexual and reproductive health. Journal of Adolescent
Health, 46(3), S1-S6.
Science Daily. (2017, December 11). Multiple health implications of women’s early marriage go
beyond early childbearing. Retrieved from
Ushie, B. A., Izugbara, C. O., Mutua, M. M., & Kabiru, C. W. (2018). Timing of abortion among
adolescent and young women presenting for post-abortion care in Kenya: a crosssectional analysis of nationally-representative data. BMC women’s health, 18(1), 41.
Vázquez-Nava, F., Vázquez-Rodriguez, C. F., Saldívar-González, A. H., Vázquez-Rodríguez, E.
M., Córdova-Fernández, J. A., Felizardo-Ávalos, J., & Sánchez-Márquez, W. (2014).
Unplanned pregnancy in adolescents: Association with family structure, employed
mother, and female friends with health-risk habits and behaviors. Journal of Urban
Health, 91(1), 176-185.
World Health Organization. (2009). Promoting adolescent sexual and reproductive health
through schools in low income countries: an information brief (No.
WHO/FCH/CAH/ADH/09.03). World Health Organization.
Health Grant Outline: A Grant Proposal to the Federal Government on Adolescent Sexual and
Reproductive health
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