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Prior to reading this DQ, please read the PA2 assignment and understand what the assignment is asking you to complete. Once you have an understanding of the PA2 assignment, please continue to the paragraph below to complete DQ1.
Using the Library Information Resource Network (LIRN), JSTOR, or any other electronic journal database, research eight (8) peer-reviewed articles that can be used to answer your upcoming PA2 assignment. Your discussion should summarize the articles in such a way that it can justify any arguments you may present in your PA2 assignment and should be different from the abstract. In addition to your researched peer-reviewed article, you must include an example of the article researched as it is applied by industry (company, business entity, and so forth).
Please note: This article summary should not be the only article researched for your PA2 assignment. You may (and should) have several other articles researched to fully answer your PA2 assignment. The concept of this DQ is to allow students to be proactive in the research necessary to complete this assignment. You may use your article summary, partially or in its entirety in your PA2 assignment.
Important: Please ensure that your reference for the article is in correct APA format, as your reference in your discussion post. Depending on which electronic database you use, you should see a “Cite” selection for your article. In addition, there should be a variety of articles summarized and as such, students should have different articles summarized. Your summary MUST include ALL of the following in your DQ post (include every item in the bullet list below, or you will not receive full credit):
Do these in order:

In correct APA format, write the Reference of the article.
Clearly state what the article is about and its purpose.
Describe how you will use it in your upcoming assignment.
Repeat for a total of eight (8) peer-reviewed sources.

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2 pages
Find out 8 articles for PA2 assignment(attached) summarize each of them and write about why use it for the PA2
PA 2 should be the continuation of your PA 1 and CLA 1​. Please search for published dissertations related to Hofstede Cultural Dimensions and answer the followings:
The Statement of the Problem of the dissertation the researcher investigated;
The research questions and hypotheses;
The findings of the study;
The limitation of the study;
The recommendation for future study;
Discuss possible dissertation topics based on the recommendations of future studies.

Provide your explanations and definitions in detail and be precise. Comment on your findings. Provide references for content when necessary. Provide your work in detail and explain

*Please refer to the Grading Criteria for Professional Assignments in the University Policies for specific guidelines and expectations.

BUSINESS AND CULTURES VALUES 1

BUSINESS AND CULTURES VALUES 8

Business and Cultures Values
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Business and Cultures Values

Culture involves the collective programming of the individual mind from their birth. Notably, collaborative programming induces numerous variances, which distinguishes the various groups of people from another. Thus, the entrant of the business operation in multiple environments requires a comprehensive analysis of the numerous aspects of the cultural trends in the nation. Therefore, the study of the artistic value of the people in the different countries is very effective. The artistic value reflects on the various ways in which people interact and live in the community. Therefore, there is a lot of distinction on the cultural significance of the people in the different nations. The organization establishing the business enterprise in the foreign countries should comprehensively examine the society’s cultural norms. The ideal enables the organization to understand better the market dynamics concerning the cultural norms and values in the country, hence enhancing efficient marketing strategy and identifying consumer behavior.
The dynamic of the cultural difference dimensional between Brazil and the U.S.A vary in various ways based on the Hofstede cultural dimensions. For instance, in the power distance dimension, Brazil reflects that the society believes that the individual in the hierarchy should be respected and inequalities among people are accepted. Thus, the distribution at the helm of power justifies the fact that the power holders favor more benefit in society than the less powerful society. In contrast, U.S.A has a lower power distance; thus, all the people in the nation feel equally entitled to the specific amount of power (Rojo et al. 2020). The ideal makes the decision-making dimension more consultative, making the people in the community relate with each other more equally regardless of the formal positions. Hence the cultural dimensions democratic to an extent. The individual who holds the inferior position has the mandate to question and challenge the individual in the superior work.
On the individualism, Hofstede cultural dimensions hold at 38 indicating, that people in the Brazil Nation are more integrated from birth. Hence, they have a strong, cohesive group primarily represented by the extended family. The aspects are relatively substantial as it provides the favorable business environment. Moreover, the extent of the trustworthy building is somewhat greater in society, especially for the individual within the extended family. Thus, it’s slightly irrational for the organizations to approach the individual they don’t understand well to conduct the business together. On the other hand, the individualism Hofstede cultural dimensions in the case of the U.S.A induce liberty and justice for all, which is emphasized through the aspects of equal right in the dynamic of the American society and government (Glauner, 2021). Thus, the hierarchy in the organization is articulated for convenience.
Moreover, the society is loosely knit where the community expects that the individual should look after themselves and their immediate families only. Furthermore, they hold that they should not at any cost depending on the authorities (Chin, et al.2021). Notably, the organizations have the tenancy of doing business with the people they don’t know well.
On masculinity, Hofstede cultural dimensions hold a scorecard of 49, which indicates the intermediate extent. Thus, the level of masculinity in the nation, which suggests that the government will be driven by competition, achievement, and success, is intermediate; hence the productivity in the government may be relative. Thus, with the medium score, its evidence that the productivity is at the average rate. On the other hand, the Hofstede cultural dimensions in the U.S.A stand at a scorecard of 62, indicating that the combination of the higher masculinity drives productivity forward (Lazányi, Holicza, & Baimakova, 2017). Therefore, the nation has the ease on the productivity culture as the result of the comprehensive competition, extensive organization achievement and success the ideal which creates a lot of dynamism in the society as the society believe in the possibility of doing much better
On the Uncertainty avoidance, Hofstede cultural dimensions, Brazil has a scorecard of 76, which indicates that the individual in the culture feels more threatened by the ambiguity of the unknown situation hence creating the belief and the institution they try to avoid. Thus, the individual in the society indicates the strong need and requirement for inducting the rules and the more effective elaborate legal system to enable better structuring of the life; thus, the individual obeys the rules however weak they are. Therefore in Brazil, the bureaucracy, law and regulations are crucial to making the nation safe to live in. On the other hand, Uncertainty avoidance Hofstede cultural dimensions in the U.S.A stand at the scorecard of 46 (Goularte, & Zilber, 2019). In this context, the perceived context in which most of the Americans find themselves impacts their behavior more than the culture could have done. Thus, there is the normality of adopting the new idea, innovation and willingness to try something different in the community. At some point, the people in the community do not need a lot of rules, and thus they are less emotionally impressive than the higher scoring cultural nations.
On the long-term orientation, Hofstede cultural dimensions, Brazil holds at 44, which is being intermediate? Then, the score indicates that the nation is in the average range in their preference to maintain their time-honoured traditions and norms while still viewing societal change (Zilber, & Goularte, 2018). On the other hand, the long-term orientation Hofstede cultural dimensions of the U.S.A stand at a score of 26. Most of the American people are reflected by the mentality. Thus they are prone in the analyses of the new information to identify its authenticity. Therefore, the culture does not make the most of the Americans pragmatic.
On the indulgence Hofstede cultural dimensions, Brazil has a higher score of 59, indicating that it’s a tolerant society as the individual in society exhibits the effective willingness to release their impulse and desires(Al-Haddad, & Galib, 2020). Notably, most of them pose good and positive altitudes hence tending towards optimism. On the other hand, the indulgence Hofstede cultural dimensions of the U.S.A stands at the score of 68. The score indicates that the culture is diluted as the contradicted altitude and behavior reflect it. The impulse and desire to collect the culture are impossible due to modern socialization.
The Hofstede cultural dimensions are comprehensively crucial for the organization to equip them to formulate an effective marketing strategy. For instance, through the information, it’s possible to identify the norm and values that the nation values through its people. The ideal will enable the organization to determine which product they should sell and study consumer behavior more easily (Huggins et al. 2020). Moreover, the information gathered allows the organization to choose how the nation can adopt the new products in the market. For instance, some countries like innovation and new ideas; thus, adopting the new product is relatively straightforward. The information gathering enables the organization to identify the hierarchy of the rule of law and leadership. The ideal will allow the organization to be more articulate on the effective measure which wills favorer their market entrant. The information allows the organization to study the do and dons of the consumer in the specific nation on the particular products in the market. Moreover, it makes it possible to identify how the product’s consumer can develop the royalty towards the specific product in the market dynamic.
Generally, the evolution of cultural values is relatively effective. The organization should ensure that they scrutinize the cultural aspect of the nation before they establish the business. Moreover, the organization should be more relevant to ensure that they adopt the norm and the artistic value of the country where they have selected, the organization to provide to enhance their conducive operations.

References

Al-Haddad, H. B., & Galib, M. H. (2020). A Comparative Analysis of Mobile Marketing Adoption in the Light of Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions. International Journal of Online Marketing (IJOM), 10(3), 62-89.
Chin, T., Hu, Q., Rowley, C., & Wang, S. (2021). Business models in the Asia-Pacific: dynamic balancing of multiple cultures, innovation and value creation.
Glauner, F. (2021). Vices, Virtues, and Values: A Business Case on Family Enterprise and Its Philosophical Implications Implementing Humanistic Management Practices. Humanistic Management in Practice: Volume II, 97-115.
Goularte, A. D. C., & Zilber, S. N. (2019). The moderating role of cultural factors in the adoption of mobile banking in Brazil. International Journal of Innovation Science.
Huggins, K. A., White, D. W., Holloway, B. B., & Hansen, J. D. (2020). Customer gratitude in relationship marketing strategies: A cross-cultural e-tailing perspective. Journal of Consumer Marketing.
Lazányi, K., Holicza, P., & Baimakova, K. (2017). Different Cultures Different People. In Exploring the Influence of Personal Values and Cultures in the workplace (pp. 183-200). IGI Global.
Mbah, S. E., & Kuye, O. (2019). Cross-cultural Human Resource Management Practices: The Case of Nigeria, USA and Japan. E-Journal of International and Comparative Labour Studies, 8(2).
Rojo, J., Everett, B., Ramjan, L. M., Hunt, L., & Salamonson, Y. (2020). Hofstede’s cultural dimensions as the explanatory framework for performance issues during clinical placement: A mixed-methods study. Nurse education today, 94, 104581.

Zilber, S. N., & Goularte, A. (2018, July). The Moderating Role of Cultural Factors in the Adoption of Mobile Banking in Brazil. In Academy of Management Proceedings (Vol. 2018, No. 1, p. 11859). Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510: Academy of Management.

BUSINESS AND CULTURES VALUES

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Business and Cultures Values

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BUSINESS AND CULTURES VALUES 1

Business and Cultures Values
Student’s Name
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“Hofstede Cultural Dimensions Application to International Marketing Strategy and Consumer Behavior”

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Assignment Due

“Explain Hofstede Cultural Framework Application To International Marketing And Global Branding?”

Global business is expanding at a rapid pace. More businesses are getting involved in international trade. As a result, businesses must understand the various cultures that exist in the areas where they operate. Hofstede saw cultural differences as a potential source of business difficulty by impeding the successful development of connections (Al-Haddad & Galib, 020). The model includes crucial information on identifying and managing differences (Al-Haddad & Galib, 020). As a result, this paper will demonstrate “how the model can be applied in international marketing, global branding, and consumer behavior and discuss the effects of cultural influence.”
“Application to International marketing”
According to the study, “The model’s first dimension has several implications for international marketing strategy. For example, universalism, prevalent in individualistic cultures, encourages marketing executives to standardize their global marketing strategy, whereas collectivism does not. In this marketing process, the communication strategy changes following the consumers’ personal characteristics (Al-Haddad & Galib, 2020).” On that note, managers must recognize that collectivists prefer indirect communication styles and, as such, must incorporate them into their marketing strategy. In a collectivist society, the self is an independent entity that attaches itself to the social context and forms social relationships (Al-Haddad & Galib, 2020). Individual behavior, however, shifts from one to the other within an individualistic framework.
As a result, “the self-concept indicates implications caused by consumer behavior, which directly impacts the marketing strategy.”
Identity and image. Evidently, “Physical appearance is directly related to identity and self-esteem in Western culture (Al-Haddad & Galib, 2020).” Furthermore, “this level of attractiveness is directly related to cultures characterized by low uncertainty avoidance, individualism, and low power distance (Al-Haddad & Galib, 2020).” Unilever used this analogy as part of a global marketing campaign. To appeal to its Western customers, the company’s real beauty campaign emphasized inner beauty (Al-Haddad & Galib, 2020). Therefore, “personal identity is an important factor that managers can include in their international marketing strategy.”
“Advertising”
“International marketing” can also be viewed through the lens of advertising, particularly when the Hofstede model is used. According to Huggins et al. (2020), “mental processes influence how consumers process information and, as a result, affect advertising style. Similarly, their social processes encompass the emotions and motivations they hold, influencing how advertising appeals to consumers (Huggins et al., 2020).” To address these processes, marketers will focus on communication and culture in cross-cultural advertising. In a global advertising strategy, the consumer becomes the success factor.
“Application in Globalization of Branding”
According to Hofstede’s framework, ‘the consumer is central to global branding strategy.” According to the authors, cultural values define a person’s self, identity, and personality. Individuals’ perceptions and thoughts are referred to as mental processes, whereas social processes are concerned with how people interact with one another (Chin, Rowley & Wang, 2021). Thus, the model emphasizes individualism.
Another significant finding is the personalities associated with global brands. According to Glauner (2021), strong global brands have the brand characteristic of friendliness in high uncertainty avoidance and low power distance cultures. In contrast, “prestige and trustworthiness were the brand characteristics attributed to strong brands in high power distance cultures.” This finding suggests that consumers frequently assign their personality preferences to global brands (Glauner, 2021). As a result, the power distance and uncertainty avoidance dimensions in global branding have significant implications.
Additionally, “use of the model in global branding is in the individualism/collectivism model.” According to Goularte and Zilber (2019), brand identity shifts in these two cultural contexts. Consistent characteristics, uniqueness, and distinctiveness are critical for global brands in individualistic cultures. On the other hand, “collectivistic cultures see brands as a component of a larger whole that connects the product to a reputable company (Goularte & Zilber, 2019). This provision explains why companies based in the United States display company logos and symbols less frequently than companies based in collectivist cultures, such as Brazil, focusing on customers.” As a result, the model’s first dimension provides valuable insight into consumer perceptions of brands, indicating their preferences for uniqueness and trust.

“Explain Hofstede Cultural Framework Application To Consumer Behavior?”

As stated, “Consumer behavior can be explained from various perspectives, such as product ownership, complaining behavior, decision making, innovation, and product usage, to name a few. The uncertainty avoidance dimension can help to explain differences in consumer behaviors when it comes to product usage and ownership (Lazányi, Holicza & Baimakova, 2017).” Therefore, “consumers in high uncertainty avoidance cultures have a passive attitude toward their health, causing them to focus on food purity, less exercise, and high medical care costs.” Low uncertainty avoidance cultural members, on the other hand, are more concerned with their health and, as a result, prioritize sports and high fitness levels. On the other hand, Masculinity is associated with high expenditures on expensive products (Lazányi, Holicza & Baimakova, 2017).
In terms of innovation adoption, “consumers who avoid uncertainty are less receptive to change.” This aversion to new products implies that such customers are unwilling to buy them. In terms of consumer behavior, “collectivists are less likely to complain about a product because they are loyal customers (Lazányi, Holicza & Baimakova, 2017).” However, retaining the same customer segment becomes difficult when this group of customers disregards a product. Lazányi Holicza, and Baimakova (2017) examine cultural relationships in the context of consumer behavior models, branding, and advertising strategies in their article. To explain the differences in cultural perspectives, the authors employ the Hofstede model. Furthermore, the article evaluates consumer behavior in terms of emotions, cognitive processes, and motivation.
Identify various conceptualizations of culture and acculturation. Notably, “The authors agree that there is a growing body of research on the influence of culture on consumer behavior.” These studies, however, do not take into account cultural differences and the uniqueness associated with multiple cultures (Mbah & Kuye, 2019). As a result, “the article proposes a novel approach to categorizing culture in various contexts.” The three approaches include “nationality, individual culture, and Hofstede’s cultural dimensions.” Therefore, the paper explains the Hofstede framework and its application to consumer behavior.
Mbah and Kuye (2019) examine and compares cultural distance in East Asia using Hofstede’s cultural dimensions. Kuye specifically observes the Mongolian cultural distance because the country is primarily made up of nomadic people. According to the author, the model has significant implications for researchers interested in exploring and understanding the cultural distance between countries. The study lays the groundwork for comparing cultures in different countries in this regard (Mbah & Kuye, 2019). This research will provide credible information that supports the requirements in the discussion in the professional assignment.

“Provide Some Advantages and Disadvantages of Being Influenced By Cultural Differences?”

From the research, “Diverse cultural settings incorporate various important customs, values, and traditions. Through their cultural orientations, organizations strive to create value for customers by identifying and meeting consumer needs (Rojo et al., 2020).” This is useful in marketing because “marketers try to communicate the meaning of their products in accordance with cultural requirements.” As a result, this enables organizations to meet the needs of their customers by taking into account different cultural perspectives.
Miscommunication, the creation of barriers, and dysfunctional adaptation behaviors are all disadvantages of cultural influences. According to Rojo et al. (2020), multiculturalism presents a variety of communication challenges. In diverse cultures, however, “dysfunctional adaptation behaviors may occur as individuals become unreceptive to new products or the innovation process.” Furthermore, “intercultural conflicts are common in these environments, making them unsuitable for conducting business (Rojo et al., 2020).” As a result, culture has a negative impact on organizations and business conduct.
Markets are rife with cultural differences. The impact is felt during the implementation of the strategies. One of the benefits of conducting business operations that are influenced by cultural differences is that the processes are user-friendly. As a result, “consumers can easily identify with the product and feel a sense of belonging to it, resulting in a positive image of the product (Rojo et al., 2020).” Furthermore, the product is tailored to meet the needs of the cultural setup, so there is a good chance of making a lot of money.
However, there are some drawbacks. For example, “a company may incur significant costs when producing products that cater to cultural differences (Rojo et al., 2020).” When a company cannot accommodate all cultural differences, it may be perceived as discriminatory and associated with a specific culture. This will harm the company’s reputation in the market.

“Based on Your Research and What you’ve learned from Hofstede Cultural Framework, Suggest a Possible Dissertation Topic?”

In contrast to Brazil, which practices some form of collectivism, America is largely an individualistic society. According to a study conducted by Zilber and Goularte (2018), Americans outperform other cultures in terms of individualism. Unlike in Brazil, “consumers in the United States are more quality and brand conscious because they live in a more individualistic cultural setting.” Furthermore, because of their masculine nature, consumers in the United States are more price-conscious. This contrasts with feminine culture in Brazil, where people are less price-conscious (Zilber & Goularte, 2018). As a result, these dimensions reveal significant differences in consumer behavior between these two countries. Moreover, “there are differences in elements of this dimension in Brazil and the USA within the construct of power distance and individualism/collectivism. Interpersonal distance frequently characterizes the feeling-good nature of individuals in the United States (Zilber & Goularte, 2018).”

Possible Research Topic

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“A possible future research area would involve explaining the relationship between different culture dimensions or approaches to culture on organizations’ performance across the world.”

References

Al-Haddad, H. B., & Galib, M. H. (2020). A Comparative Analysis of Mobile Marketing Adoption in the Light of Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions. International Journal of Online Marketing (IJOM), 10(3), 62-89.
Chin, T., Hu, Q., Rowley, C., & Wang, S. (2021). Business models in the Asia-Pacific: dynamic balancing of multiple cultures, innovation and value creation.
Glauner, F. (2021). Vices, Virtues, and Values: A Business Case on Family Enterprise and Its Philosophical Implications Implementing Humanistic Management Practices. Humanistic Management in Practice: Volume II, 97-115.
Goularte, A. D. C., & Zilber, S. N. (2019). The moderating role of cultural factors in the adoption of mobile banking in Brazil. International Journal of Innovation Science.
Huggins, K. A., White, D. W., Holloway, B. B., & Hansen, J. D. (2020). Customer gratitude in relationship marketing strategies: A cross-cultural e-tailing perspective. Journal of Consumer Marketing.
Lazányi, K., Holicza, P., & Baimakova, K. (2017). Different Cultures Different People. In Exploring the Influence of Personal Values and Cultures in the workplace (pp. 183-200). IGI Global.
Mbah, S. E., & Kuye, O. (2019). Cross-cultural Human Resource Management Practices: The Case of Nigeria, USA, and Japan. E-Journal of International and Comparative Labour Studies, 8(2).
Rojo, J., Everett, B., Ramjan, L. M., Hunt, L., & Salamonson, Y. (2020). Hofstede’s cultural dimensions as the explanatory framework for performance issues during clinical placement: A mixed-methods study. Nurse education today, 94, and 104581.
Zilber, S. N., & Goularte, A. (2018, July). The Moderating Role of Cultural Factors in the Adoption of Mobile Banking in Brazil. In Academy of Management Proceedings (Vol. 2018, No. 1, p. 11859). Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510: Academy of Management.

1, Albrecht, S., Breidahl, E., & Marty, A. (2018). Organizational resources, organizational engagement climate, and employee engagement. Career Development International, 23(1), 67-85. doi:10.1108/cdi-04-2017-0064
In this essay, the authors have proposed that six specific organizational resources are important to an organization in that positive impacts would be created.  There will be an organizational engagement climate and positive direct and indirect associations with employee engagement and job resources.
Therefore, it is seen that a climate that fosters organization engagement has a positive impact to the job resources and employee engagement.
2, Justin Dallaire. (2020). What’s behind Gap’s woes? Strategy. Retrieved from https://strategyonline.ca/2020/01/21/whats-behind-gaps-woes/
The author in this essay argues that GAP Inc. is becoming a middleman and that does not know which end of the market to play in. This has led to various issues being faced by GAP over recent years.
The author recommends that GAP should re-examine the value proposition for its individual banners and that redirect its investment into banners that have more potential for growth.
3, Hiroko Tabuchi. (2015). Gap Is Closing 175 Stores, Hoping for a Turnaround. New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/16/business/gap-to-close-175-stores-in-north-america.html
In this essay, the author argues that GAP Inc decided to close ¼ of its stores in North America as the company struggles to maintain in the market. This move will see most people lose jobs.
With the closure of 175 stores, GAP is seen to have struggled in keeping up with fashion trends and competition has also increased.
4, Reuters. (2014). Gap raises forecast; to open 40 stores in India. Fashion Network. Retrieved from https://ww.fashionnetwork.com/news/gap-raises-forecast-to-open-40-stores-in-india,424736.html
In this essay, the author argues that GAP Inc decided to open 40 stores in India, a move to expand in the emerging markets.
Additionally, this move by GAP was to reduce its overdependence in the North American market which generates more than ¾ of its sales.
5, Infiniti Research. (2018). Top challenges in the Fashion Retail Industry | Infiniti Research. Business Wire. Retrieved from https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20180316005392/en/Top-challenges-in-the-Fashion-Retail-Industry-Infiniti-Research
 The author argues that the fashion industry is indecisive in nature. Thus, the owners of these brands find it difficult to thrive in the competitive industry.
Therefore, market intelligence is needed so that fashion companies can be able to ensure they can operate successfully in the fiercely competitive environment.
6, LEE FREDERIKSEN. (2021). Mergers and Acquisitions as Part of Your Growth Strategy. Hinge Marketing. Retrieved from https://hingemarketing.com/blog/story/mergers-and-acquisitions-as-part-of-your-growth-strategy
 The author in this essay argues that mergers and acquisitions help an organization become more competitive in the current market that it is operating on.
Thus, this approach has become a popular business strategy for companies which look to expand to new markets and acquiring new technologies and skills set.
7, MATHIAS VARGA. (2010). Analyzing the Austrian fashion industry according to Porter´s five forces. Retrieved from https://www.grin.com/document/153571#:~:text=Porter%20determines%20the%20attractiveness%20and,and%20Rivalry%20in%20the%20Industry
 The authors suggest that, in the fashion industry, there is fierce competition that needs to be taken seriously. Companies should device methods which will help them stay competitive for long.
The Porter’s five competitive models are, “Bargaining Power of Buyers, Bargaining Power of Suppliers, Threat of New Entrants, and Threat of Substitute Products and Rivalry in the Industry.”
8, Brad Smith. (2020). Fashion Marketing: Top 5 Strategies To Increase Conversions. Retrieved from https://adespresso.com/blog/fashion-marketing-strategies/
 Here, the author argues that the fashion business is on the rise and it is expected to grow by 15% in 2020 to 715 billion globally.
Therefore, fashion companies need to ensure that they personalize their customer’s experience, understand their audience, and use influencers to social proof the fashion market.
 
References
Albrecht, S., Breidahl, E., & Marty, A. (2018). Organizational resources, organizational engagement climate, and employee engagement. Career Development International, 23(1), 67-85. doi:10.1108/cdi-04-2017-0064
Brad Smith. (2020). Fashion Marketing: Top 5 Strategies To Increase Conversions. Retrieved from https://adespresso.com/blog/fashion-marketing-strategies/
Hiroko Tabuchi. (2015). Gap Is Closing 175 Stores, Hoping for a Turnaround. New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/16/business/gap-to-close-175-stores-in-north-america.html
Infiniti Research. (2018). Top challenges in the Fashion Retail Industry | Infiniti Research. Business Wire. Retrieved from https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20180316005392/en/Top-challenges-in-the-Fashion-Retail-Industry-Infiniti-Research
Justin Dallaire. (2020). What’s behind Gap’s woes? Strategy. Retrieved from https://strategyonline.ca/2020/01/21/whats-behind-gaps-woes/
LEE FREDERIKSEN. (2021). Mergers and Acquisitions as Part of Your Growth Strategy. Hinge Marketing. Retrieved from https://hingemarketing.com/blog/story/mergers-and-acquisitions-as-part-of-your-growth-strategy
MATHIAS VARGA. (2010). Analyzing the Austrian fashion industry according to Porter´s five forces. Retrieved from https://www.grin.com/document/153571#:~:text=Porter%20determines%20the%20attractiveness%20and,and%20Rivalry%20in%20the%20Industry
Reuters. (2014). Gap raises forecast; to open 40 stores in India. Fashion Network. Retrieved from https://ww.fashionnetwork.com/news/gap-raises-forecast-to-open-40-stores-in-india,424736.html