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CHAP 7, 8,9
The overall system results and performance need to be evaluated against the objectives
which are mentioned in chapter 1 and also with other related work (which you discussed
in literature review/theory). Ideally any metrics like (voltage, time, distance) need to be
provided here for the discussion and comparison purposes with the existing project.
7.1 Identify and describe the Hardware and software Functional
The Hardware unit describes the input and output devices used for interfacing and driving
the circuits involved for each functional unit. Software functional unit involves the
initializing, processing, Data logging performed by the system design. Similarly the
software development tools such as compiler, debugger and emulator used in the system
to explain how the programs are created, edited and built to achieve the desired results
7.2. Discuss the properties, issues and constraints of functional
A reflective and critical appraisal of technical problems encountered while developing this
project and how they were resolved, lessons learnt, what could have been done better or
differently to overcome drawbacks/limitations of this project etc. should be described in
this chapter
7.3 Suggested Improvements / Solutions
The Improvements in the project work is to highlight the technical parameters which can
make system design more effective and highly efficient.
8.1 Legal and Ethical Aspects
The actions that society finds acceptable versus the actions which society do not accept
create the ethics by which a member of society must abide. From this definition, ethical
action on the part of engineer can be partially simplified, (as it is in most codes of ethics
from engineering organizations,) as the simple mandate that an engineer’s greatest
responsibility is to the public good. Unfortunately, not all situations are morally well
defined and engineers will be called upon by themselves, their company, or society to make
profound, or more often. Who is responsible for assuring the safe, legal, and ethical use of
this project? What are the consequences of dishonesty in system/project use, individual and
professional? How does ethical analysis apply to activities that are against the law?
8.2 Social Aspects
What effects have your project had on the quality of life in the workplace, and in society
in general? Are your projects addictive? Do they depersonalize the individual to the point
that ethical issues no longer seem relevant? How do electronics engineering professionals
determine ethical standards to deal with the effects that their work has in these areas?
8.3 Sustainability Aspects
Sustainable design is a kind of design meant to yield products that are made only of
renewable resources. Furthermore, products made, though sustainable design is intended
not to seriously impact the environment either when they are being created or when they
are being used. These products are also often designed to allow the users to feel more
connected or to relate more closely to the natural environment. This design is based on
economic, ecological, and social principles regarding the importance of sustainability.
Discuss the relevant sustainability aspects of your project by answering some of the
principles (but not restricted to these principles only) of sustainable design as follow:

Efficient use of raw materials (e.g. lightweight and regenerative materials and
reduction of waste)

Resource efficient design (e.g. by optimization of energy and water consumption
or using less virgin materials)

Durable design (e.g. stable and high durability of the product)

High disposability (e.g. use of easily degradable materials)

Efficient logistics (e.g. minimized packing and efficient transports)

Consumer health & safety (e.g. informing the consumer via product labels and
voluntary information)
An effective set of conclusions should not introduce new material. Instead it should briefly
draw out, summarize, combine and reiterate the main points that have been made in the
body of the project report and present opinions based on them. Be honest and objective in
your conclusions.
9.1 Summarizing
The Conclusions section should be a summary of the aims of project and a restatement of
its main results, i.e. what has been learnt and what it has achieved.
It is quite likely that by the end of your project you will not have achieved all that you
planned at the start; and in any case, your ideas will have grown during the course of the
project beyond what you could hope to do within the available time.
9.2 Applications
The real world implications of the project work is considered as an applications.
They are expected on real life usage and scope of scientific field. In other words it is our
results which provide us an idea of demonstrating its usefulness to the society in different
9.3 Recommendations
The Future Work section known as recommendation is for expressing your
unrealized ideas and the possible extension in these ideas. It is also a way of stating what
you would like to have done if only you had not run out of time. A good Future Work
section should provide a starting point for someone else to continue the work which you
have begun. Outline possible enhancements or extensions to the project, or further work
needed to address outstanding issues.
The Harvard Reference Style is a simple referencing system used internationally by
scholars and researchers. There are two elements:
I. In-text citations:
In the body of your paper, give the surname of the author and the date of publication. (For
a web site, give the organization as the author). Also give the page number if you quote or
II. List of References:
At the end of your paper, give full publication or internet information, arranged
alphabetically by (sur)name of author so that a reader can easily locate every source. Some
tutors and subject groups may require you to use an alternative referencing style. If you are
unsure, ask your module tutor. It is your responsibility to find out whether your tutor
requires you to use a different referencing style.
Part I. How to Write In-text-Citations
Cite every source which you refer to in the main body of your writing. Your in-text citations
must state the surname of the author and the year of publication. Also give the page number
if you quote a passage directly or if you paraphrase (put the idea into your own words).
For example:
Concern about climate change is becoming a ‘force for good’ in international politics
(Kennedy 2004: 88).
If you borrow an image, figure, or statistics from a printed source, you must provide an intext citation.
In-text citations of internet sources
Give the organization that produced the web-site as the author (this is known as the
corporate author). If you can locate it, also give the date when the site was produced or last
If the document is not dated, in order to be accurate, write ‘n.d.’ in brackets, i.e. ‘no date’.
For example:
Manufacturing is the Midlands’ biggest industry (Coventry University 2005).
If you borrow an image, figure, or statistics from a web site you must provide an in-text
In-text citations of secondary sources
If you cite from a book or article which gives a useful quotation from another book or
article, try to find the original book or article.
Option 1
If you can find the original source, read it and cite the material from the original.
Option 2
If you cannot find the original source, complete your in-text citation of the quote in this
way: Give the surname of the author whose original work you have not read and its original
year of publication. Then write ‘cited in’ and give the surname of the author whose work
you have read (in which the reference to the first author appears). Then give the date and
page number.
For example:
Coventry boasts the ‘finest modern cathedral in Britain’
(Shah 2004 cited in Padda 2005: 8).
Part II. How to Write a List of References
Make an alphabetical list (according to the author or corporate author) containing all the
citations in your academic writing. This is called the List of References.
Give full publication or internet details of every source you have cited. This list goes on a
separate page at the end of your assignment. Leave a line of space between each entry and
indent every line after the first like this:
A book with one author:
Biggs, G. (2000) Gender and Scientific Discovery. 2nd edn. London: Routledge
A book with multiple authors:
Ong, E., Chan, W., and Peters, J. (2004) Advances in Engineering. 2nd edn. London:
A chapter or essay by a particular author in an edited book:
Aggarwal, B. (2005) ‘Has the British Bird Population Declined?’. in A Guide to
Contemporary Ornithology. ed. by Adams, G. London: Palgrave, 66-99
A printed journal article:
Padda, J. (2003) ‘Creative Writing in Coventry’. Journal of Writing Studies 3 (2), 44-59
A web site
Centre for Academic Writing (2005) The List of References Illustrated [online] available
from [20 July 2005]
An electronic journal article
Dhillon, B. (2004) ‘Should Doctors Wear Ties?’. Medical Monthly [online] 3 (1), 55-88.
available from http://hospitals/infections/latest-advice [20 April 2005]
Students are requested to put Coventry Harvard referencing style in their system by
following the steps shown in Appendix A for inserting references and citations according
to CU Harvard format in the project report.
1. Collect CUHARVARD.ZIP file from your concerned faculty.
2. Unzip the .ZIP file in any folder
3. Copy CUHARVARD.XSL file into the following location:
C:Program FilesMicrosoft OfficeOffice14BibliographyStyle
Note: If you are using a 64 bit computer, find MS Office installation folder at Program
Files(x86) folder.
If you are using MS OFFICE 2007, the folder name will ‘Office12’
4. If MS Word is Open, close and start it again
5. Click at References Tab and click at Style List
6. Select Harvard – Coventry references style
7. For any source Click on Insert Citation in the same tab
8. In the references section (at the end of the document), Use Insert Bibliography option from
‘References’ tab.
9. For step by step help from Microsoft put cursor on specific item e.g. Manage sources or
Insert citation or Bibliography and press F1.
The word will generate auto bibliography/ references in CU Harvard style.
Deora, S. (2009) ‘A common framework of NBTI generation and recovery in plasmanitrided SiON p-MOSFETs’, Electron Device Letters, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 978-980.

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