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Think about how your personal values and morals correlate
with the principles of servant leadership. How can you draw on values and
morals to establish your followership and serve those you lead professionally
and personally? Strengthen your
claims with supporting citations from “Kenneth Hein – Topic 3: Values”
Attached and “Servant Leadership Experience Overview” Attached and Provide
in-text citations and corresponding references in APA format from both in 400 – 500 words.
servant_leadership_videos_ldr_630.pdf

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LDR-630 – Servant Leadership
Topic 1: Transcending Boundaries
Hello. My name is Craig St. John, and I am a faculty member in the Colangelo College of
Business at GCU. In this brief video, I’m going to discuss servant leadership as it relates to
various religions. That is, how our modern understanding and principles of leadership have been
inspired by a diversity of ancient sources and contexts.
One source that I’m sure is not a surprise to any of you, especially assuming you have taken
lower level servant leadership courses, is Christianity and the person and work of Jesus Christ.
Perhaps Matthew 20:26b-28 summarizes this best, which, quoting Jesus, states, “But whoever
wishes to be great among you must be your servant, and whoever wishes to be first among you
must be your slave, just as the Son of Man came not to be served but to serve, and to give his life
as a ransom for many.”
Living in this first century Greco-Roman context, Jesus’ exhortation and example here was
radical. In an environment where power and status were greatly revered, and feared, and where
the lesser lived to serve the greater, the idea that leaders are to serve was unheard of—and
perhaps that’s still somewhat foreign today in the twenty-first century West. This is one of the
teachings that inspired Robert Greenleaf, the “father of servant leadership,” who, in his 1970
essay, “The Servant as Leader,” wrote, “Servant leadership begins with the natural feeling that
one wants to serve first.”
Greenleaf’s idea of servant leadership was indeed inspired by Christian teachings. He was a
Quaker, so the teachings of Jesus were of course central. And specific to Quakers are the
practices of community, consensus in decision making, persuasion, and listening. But
Christianity was not Greenleaf’s sole influence. Another principal source were the writings of
German author Hermann Hesse, who, though influenced by his parents’ Christianity, largely
drew from Eastern thought, namely Indian and Buddhist philosophies, which are evident in his
novel, Journey to the East, a favorite of Greenleaf, which greatly informed his notions of what a
leader should be.
Servant leadership, thus, is neither rooted exclusively in Christianity or Western thought, nor is
its practical outpouring restricted to such. Personally, as a Christian, I firmly believe in the
exclusivity of salvation through Christ and that within his teachings is the ultimate truth—He, in
fact, is “the way, the truth, and the life”. However, this, by no means, indicates that truth,
goodness, and beauty cannot and do not transcend the boundaries of Christianity. The Christian
doctrine of common grace teaches that while salvation is found in Christ alone, other aspects of
grace, such as wisdom and innovation, justice and servanthood, can be found almost anywhere.
While we’re all aware of religious and cultural wars having been fought since the dawn of
civilization, we also see religions and cultures coming together for the common good. When a
Catholic cathedral, or Jewish synagogue, or Islamic mosque is bombed, the whole community
comes together to mourn, support one another, and stand up for justice. Similarly, we can see
clear evidence of servant leadership beyond the confines of Christianity and the nations and
regions where Christians are in the majority.
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Very briefly, we can look to the religions of Judaism, Islam, and Buddhism to identify historical
aspects of what would be known as servant leadership. We’ll examine each through the four
lenses of religious leadership, as identified by German sociologist and philosopher, Max Weber:
reaffirmation, where a religious figure reaffirms the central truths of an existing religion;
radicalization, where the truths are demonstrated in a profound way through exemplary behavior;
ritualization, by which the truths are codified in laws and sacred rituals; and responsiveness,
which includes ways that are opened for followers to respond to a given call.
I’ll begin with the two religions that are the closest relatives to Christianity, Judaism and Islam,
as all three are what are known as Abrahamic faiths—that is, monotheistic religions with historic
claims to the biblical figure, Abraham.
Of the three religions we’ll discuss, Judaism is the smallest in terms of worldwide population, as
it has only roughly 14.5 million adherents today. As suggested by the term “Abrahamic
religion,” Judaism traces its roots to Abraham in the Bible, in about 1500 BCE. One central
element of Judaism that resembles servant leadership is that of communal leadership, which
encourages empowerment and the distribution of power, rather than seeing power as held by a
central figure or select few.
Moses is a pivotal example of a servant leader in the Hebrew faith, as he sacrificially devoted his
life to liberating his fellow Hebrew people from slavery and empowering others to serve and
lead. Moses reaffirmed the faith handed down to him from his ancestor Abraham, which
understands a transcendent God who gives people a sense of meaning, integrity, and wholeness
(or shalom). He radicalized these truths by codifying them in the Ten Commandments and the
Torah, and then he ritualized them in the Shema, which is recited twice per day by devout Jews:
Sh’ma Yisra’eil Adonai Eloheinu Adonai echad (“Hear, o Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is
one”).
Finally, as he approached the end of his life and leadership, Moses embraced Joshua as his
successor, giving him the opportunity to respond by following in his footsteps, ensuring not
necessarily his legacy, but his mission, in which his liberated people would establish a nation and
not only for the sake of their own self-determination, but also to be a light to all nations.
Next, we can look at Islam, which, though founded by the Prophet Muhammed in the seventh
century CE, traces its roots to Abraham through his son Ishmael rather than Isaac. Islam is the
world’s second largest religion, with 1.8 billion followers worldwide. Muhammed demonstrated
servant leadership characteristics through his lived spirituality and avoidance of personal
ambition. He led by providing an example of how to serve Allah, which is simply Arabic for
God, to do good deeds, pray regularly, practice charity, and conduct mutual service.
Looking through Weber’s lenses, we can see that Muhammed reaffirmed older truths, including
those of the biblical figures of Adam, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus, but then radicalized them by
recasting the Judeo-Christian accounts of the Qur’an and showing himself to be the final prophet
of God, leading a life of service to others. His message was structured in rituals, which are
continued at the Ka’ba, a shrine in Mecca, a place central to Muslims, and he gave them a way to
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respond to his teachings, which include Islam’s five pillars: professing their faith, praying daily,
giving alms, fasting, and going on a pilgrimage to Mecca.
Lastly is Buddhism, which is arguably the most foreign to Christianity and the West. Buddhism
was founded by Siddhārtha Gautama, also known as the Buddha (or “awakened one”), in the
sixth century CE and is the fourth largest religion in the world, with 520 million followers. A
principal teaching of Buddhism that relates to servant leadership is the notion of anatta, or “no
self,” which sees the personal self, or “I,” as a false western construct. From this idea, the
bodhisattva, or the “one with perfect knowledge,” chooses to forego nirvana, or final
enlightenment, for the benefit of others, an example initiated by the Buddha.
Going through Weber’s lenses again, we can see that the Buddha reaffirmed the teachings of
Buddhism’s relative, Hinduism, namely the Three Noble Truths: First, life means suffering;
second, the origin of suffering is attachment; and third, the cessation of suffering is attainable.
And then, he added a Fourth Noble Truth, which is the Eightfold Path of right truth, intention,
speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, and concentration. The Buddha radicalized this
message by suggesting that followers could be free from samsara, or rebirth, by progressing to
moksha, or liberation, in just one lifetime of disciplined effort, and also by doing away with
Hinduism’s caste system. He then ritualized the teachings through the recitation of the threefold
refuge: “I take refuge in the Buddha, in the dharma (or the teachings), and in the sangha (or
community).” As for responsiveness, the Buddha’s example of deferring entrance into nirvana
created an ethos that enables leaders to follow the dharma and help others find the way.
We can conclude that through reaffirming, radicalizing, ritualizing, and inviting a response, these
ancient leaders served their followers and pointed them to a path by which they could lead future
generations into lives of servant leadership. While we did not cover the non-religious elements of
culture in this brief video, what we can conclude is that in these ancient cultures, religious belief
was closely tied to respective national cultures, namely what is presently Israel, Saudi Arabia,
and China.
Similarly, Christianity has been incredibly influential in Western civilization, despite the fact that
not all westerners subscribe to Christianity.
No matter the religion or region of the world, leaders can find a context in which to humble
themselves, consider themselves as part of the whole, mutually submit to one another, and place
others’ interests above their own. Each of these are principal characteristics of a servant leader,
something any of us can become, provided that we take the focus off ourselves, and, as
Greenleaf aptly stated, “serve first.”
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Topic 3: Values
Greetings, my name is Ken Hein. I consider it a privilege to serve on the Grand Canyon
University, Colangelo College of Business faculty. In this role my concentration is on two
distinctly different, yet, closely related subjects: strategic management and servant leadership.
Each is different as the titles imply; related in that they each involve leading others, both directly
and indirectly. And, they are related by one factor that significantly influences us in either role;
values. Specifically, it is our values that drive our choices and, as a result, our behavior,
including how we treat others.
I like to begin each new Servant Leadership class with a couple of points that will be revisited
many times over in the topics of the course.
First, it is almost impossible to achieve a true position of committed servant leadership until we
come to the end of ourselves.
Two, our choices are a direct reflection of our values.
Three, the most difficult person we will ever lead is the one who greets us in the mirror every
morning (or, afternoon if you are a late riser).
Four, if we do not have a true-north that influences our choices then we are likely to bend in
whatever direction appears most beneficial at any given time.
And five, servant leaders were servants first, long before they even entertained the notion of
leading others.
One of the predominant reasons I like to teach at GCU is that I am free to speak of my faith and
how my faith in Jesus Christ has changed me into the man I am today. Interestingly, it is the
work God has done in changing me by using a true life-changing event that brought me to a true
appreciation for the importance of values.
A few years ago, while going through a true-life crisis, I heard a saying that captured my
attention and has remained with me. The saying goes, “you either stand for something, or you
will fall for anything.” What I didn’t truly appreciate at the time was that the saying is really
about understanding your values. Those things that, ultimately, if you honestly hold them as true,
definable items of supreme importance drive our choices.
In 1973, Milton Rokeach created an assessment tool to measure human values. The Rokeach
Values Survey (or RVS) has become one of the most widely used tools for assessing a person’s
values. The RVS consists of 36-items; 18 each for terminal values and 18 for instrumental
values.
Terminal Values refer to desirable end-states of existence; the goals a person would like to
realize during their lifetime. While, Instrumental Values refer to preferred modes of behavior.
They then become the means for achieving the terminal values.
How then do we look at our values with an eye on becoming a true servant leader, if the values
are all about what we want to achieve? The answer must come back to who we serve. Do we
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wish to serve ourselves? Or, is something (or someone) much larger, who or what, we wish to
serve? That is an entirely longer conversation that we shall preserve for another day.
For now, please note that we all make choices and that at the heart of our choices are our values
influencing us; subconsciously if not consciously.
I will close, though, with a reflection on point # 2, above; our choices reflect our values. And, to
illustrate this point and link it to my comment about living out my faith, I will refer to King
David and how he declared the very heart of his value system in Psalm 15, where he said,
“Lord, who may dwell in your sanctuary? Who may live on your holy hill?
He whose walk is blameless and who does what is righteous, who speaks the truth from his heart
and has no slander on his tongue, who does his neighbor no wrong and cast no slur on his
fellowman, who despises a vile man but honors those who fear the Lord, who keeps his oath
even when it hurts, who lends his money without usury and does not accept a bribe against the
innocent.
He who does these things will never be shaken.”
Yes, you either believe in something or you will fall for anything. King David said this is who I
am, and this is what I stand for, live for, and will die for. Our values define who we are in so
many ways.
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Topic 5: Lead by Serving
Hello, my name is Randy Gibb. And my name is Allison Mason.
Here in the Colangelo College of Business, we have three pillars: Servant Leadership, Ethics,
and Entrepreneurism.
I’m often asked to articulate what servant leadership means to our college. The essence of
servant leadership is “service before self,” or putting the organization and its people ahead of
one’s own needs.
A servant leader should be the hardest working person in the organization; the one who clearly
shares a vision and provides resources, training, coaching and a climate that fully supports his or
her team. Long-term success is created if leadership is accomplished in a manner consistent with
patience, kindness, humility, respect and selflessness.
Absolutely. Servant leadership is best defined by Jesus Himself in Matthew 20: “Whoever wants
to become great among you must be your servant, and whoever wants to be first must be your
slave – just as the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a
ransom for many”
What a great verse and that serves as the foundation for our college.
A servant leader should be a steward. Sometimes, leaders come into an organization with the
mindset that they are the most important person and that they are the organization. The reality is
that the organization was likely around prior to any particular leader and the organization will
certainly be around much longer than after the leader is gone.
As a steward, our job as leader is to serve others and improve the organization, grow our
replacement and hand it off to the next leader better than we had received it. Stewardship entails
being solely accountable and responsible for an organization, which fits right in line with servant
leadership.
Absolutely. As shared in Mark, Chapter 9, “Whoever wants to be first must be last of all and
servant of all.”
These ideals are the types of characteristics that the Colangelo College of Business hopes to
instill in our graduates. We aim to graduate future business owners and leaders who will go into
communities as servant leaders and invest in all stakeholders – to serve their community, become
profitable and then reinvest in their business, their employees and their community.
If you want to learn how to lead, start serving.
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Topic 6: Inclusion, Multiculturalism, and Diversity
Hello! My name is Dr. Ed Slover and I’m a faculty member in the Colangelo College of
Business at Grand Canyon University.
Today we are going to discuss how the principles and practice of servant leadership can
proliferate respect for inclusion, multiculturalism, and diversity in organizations and the
communities they serve.
To start, let’s define each of the terms to ensure clarity and alignment with working definitions.
Uhl-Bien and Schermerhorn define inclusion, or inclusivity, as the degree to which an
organization is open to anyone who can perform a job regardless of race, gender, age or any
other individual difference. Multiculturalism, or a multi-cultural organization, is based on
pluralism and operates on inclusivity and respect for diversity. Characteristics of a multi-cultural
organization include the absence of prejudice and discrimination and minimal intergroup
conflict. Finally, diversity represents many types of individual differences, such as race,
ethnicity, gender, and a variety of thoughts and backgrounds.
Now that we have these working definitions, let’s identify a few specific principles of servant
leadership that, when employed effectively, can proliferate respect for inclusion,
multiculturalism, and diversity. Please note, however, that each principle of servant leadership
can be applied to this topic.
Imagine for a moment how dysfunctional an organizational culture would be if a leader
dismissed others’ thoughts and ideas on the basis of age, gender, skin color, personality and
cared little for hearing and learning from their employees. Unfortunately, this dynamic still
occurs far too often in 21st century organizations. Thus, the first principle of servant leadership
identified is listening. While many effective leaders and managers are known for their ability to
formulate and articulate a vision in addition to making important decisions, servant leaders are
mindful of the importance of listening intently to others. This skill when done well, helps foster
an environment of inclusivity, as the leader values each individual employee’s thoughts, ideas,
and perspectives.
Through listening, servant leaders demonstrate their ability to respect many types of individual
differences by genuinely acknowledging others and not discriminating against specific
individuals’ contributions. Such leaders embody a caring spirit whereby they value others despite
their differences. This isn’t to suggest that the leader will agree with the varied perspectives
brought forth, but rather they cultivate a culture of trust so that every employee or follower
believes they have a voice.
In order to have leadership, there must be willing followership. Said differently, a person knows
whether or not they’re a leader when they have at least one willing follower. Willing followers
contribute because they want to, and they have commitment. Unwilling followers contribute
because they have to, and they’re compliant. This brings us to the second principle of servant
leadership identified: awareness. Before a leader can establish trust and commitment with their
followers, they must first possess a level of self-awareness that each follower is their own unique
person and, out of that uniqueness, brings va …
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