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my friends post are attachedMaster of DISASTER MANAGEMENT.The course is Healthcare Emergency Management-Response to two of my classmates.The question was :Based on your readings and experience, compare and contrast how health care emergency management evolved before 9/11 to its evolution after 9/11.Why has the scope of healthcare emergency management grown so dramatically? Will the growth continue? -Instructions:-Look at the two of my classmates’ posts. I need you to respond to each of them in a full-page (3-4 paragraphs).-All you need to do is to choose one point of the post and explore it a little bit with at least one source support. Also, you can add a little bit new relevant to the topic. In the attachment, you will find my classmates’ posts.(ACADEMIC WRITING) One Page (3 or 4) paragraphs for each of them.1- Use APA Style format 6th edition. Including in-text citation.2- Use Grammarly program to change all the mistakes that give you because my university uses and depends on it3- Use simple academic words as a second language.4- Avoid the passive voice absolutely.5- Avoid start new sentence with unclear subject such as (THIS).please meet the requirements.

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1. Based on your readings and experience, compare and contrast how health care
emergency management evolved before 9/11 to its evolution after 9/11.
The United States, among other countries in the world, has so far experienced several
large-scale disasters. The 11th September 2001 attack that saw the Pentagon and the World
Trade Center buildings hit by hijacked planed as well as the anthrax attack in 2002 was the most
memorable attacks that have changed the United States people’s thinking on emergency
preparedness and response. Before the attack, mainly in mid and late 20th century, there were no
primary emphasis on emergency preparedness, and response since most of the healthcare centers
were only designed to only care for the sick and with different health needs and were mainly
received funding from the community they were located and various religious organizations
(Reilly & Markenson, 2010). Even though this had changed a little, they had limited resources to
cater to mega emergency events like 9/11 and anthrax attacks.
After the attack in 2001, a lot of advancements have been made to prepare and respond to
emergencies of such extent. One of them is funding where hospitals started and are continuing to
receive funding from different sources, including the federal government. This has enabled
hospitals to acquire the necessary resources, plan, and train medical professionals on mass
causality incidents (Sauer et al., 2009). Regulations and standards have also been developed and
outlined for hospitals to follow as emergency management measures and requirements. The 11th
September experience also became a reference point and an awakening point where the federal
government, local government, and hospitals developed a joint mission of improving the level of
emergency preparedness and response.
2. Why has the scope of healthcare emergency management grown so dramatically? Will
the growth continue?
The scope and level of healthcare emergency management have improved significantly,
especially for the past two decades. One of the reasons is the strengthening of The Joint
Commission (TJC), which was initially established in 1951 as a non-profit making organization
for setting standards for healthcare delivery and performance evaluation. TJC has developed
emergency management and preparedness standards with major executions and modifications
done after the 2001 attack. Secondly, the federal government, through its executive branch, has
also significantly influenced the level of healthcare preparedness. For instance, in 2007, the
executive branch of government developed the HSPD-21, which established the National
Strategy for Public Health and Medical Preparedness. Lastly, the support from Congress has
played a significant role in healthcare emergency management. Congress has been passing
different laws and regulations, such as the Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act in 2006
(Barbera et al., 2009). The level of healthcare emergency management will continue to grow
since the threats are increasing as the years go by, and terrorists are also improving their attack
Barbera, J. A., Yeatts, D. J., & Macintyre, A. G. (2009). Challenge of hospital emergency
preparedness: analysis and recommendations. Disaster Medicine and Public Health
Preparedness, 3(S1), S74-S82.
Reilly, M. J., & Markenson, D. S. (2010). Health care emergency management: Principles
and practice. Jones & Bartlett
Sauer, L. M., McCarthy, M. L., Knebel, A., & Brewster, P. (2009). Major influences on hospital
emergency management and disaster preparedness. Disaster medicine and public
health preparedness, 3(S1), S68S73.file:///C:/Users/LAWI/AppData/Local/Temp/20200109043709major_influences_on_
Response 2 :
9/11 terrorist attacks followed by Anthrax attacks served as a wakeup call for the healthcare
leaders in the united states. Before these attacks, the ability of healthcare facilities to absorb a
huge number of patients was humble and not well developed. After the 9/11 attacks, the federal
government spent a huge amount of money to develop the healthcare system and the ability of
hospitals to receive a large number of patients in response to these attacks and to be prepared for
an upcoming attack. the level of preparedness to the terrorist attacks before 9/11 was not well
developed, in my opinion, the reason for this is the number and the way of these attacks, it is the
first time in history some terrorist drive a civilian airplane into a world trade center building. If
you take a look at the 9/11 attacks impact you can say it is disastrous it caused an immediate
death of a 3000 person and not to mention the injured patients. at that time the government
wasn’t sure if it’s only a single act or there will be more attacks that’s why I think it spent a
lot of money to develop the healthcare emergency management system.
I think the reason of the development of the healthcare emergency management is to meet the
demand of the increased number of the mass causalities incidents like wars, terrorist attacks and
car accidents. Yes I think It will still grow because the need of healthcare emergency
management is increasingly grown due to increased numbers of wars and conflicts.
Ringel, S., J., Wasserman, & Jeffrey. (2011, August 22). The Public Health System a Decade
After 9/11. Retrieved from

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