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Research Paper Topic : Policy-making and implementation : – Necessary to deal with societal problems Subject Name : Information Technology in a Global Economy (Attached the text book pdf and also week 1 tutorial pdf for better understanding)Write a short research paper for a peer-reviewed research paper that pertains to the week’s assigned reading. This will be a detailed summary of the research paper and what you gained from the research. Each week, you will find an article/peer-reviewed research paper that pertains to the week’s assignment. Google Scholar is a wonderful location to find these types of articles:https://scholar.google.com/Once you find the article, you will simply read it and then write a review of it. Think of it as an article review where you submit a short overview of the article.Note :*All outside sources must be referenced and cited in your paper. All papers will be reviewed with a plagiarism software. Any references not properly referenced and cited will result in a 0 on your paper. Requirement :Peer-reviewed research paperRequired in APA format Attachment contains Week 1 tutorial PDF for better understanding on the topic.Minimum requirement is 2 pages and references should be posted on the other page.
its_832_chapter_1.pdf

policypracticeanddigitalscience.pdf

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ITS 832 CHAPTER 1
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN A GLOBAL ECONOMY
DR. JORDON SHAW
INTRODUCTION
• Policy-making and implementation
• Necessary to deal with societal problems
• Policy interventions




Costly
Long-term implications
May affect large groups of people
Not easy to undo
COMPLEXITY AND UNCERTAINTY
• Ongoing process






Recognize issue as problem
Develop alternative course of action
Create or alter policy
Implement policy
Execute policy
Evaluate policy
POLICY CYCLE AND STAKEHOLDERS
DEVELOPMENTS

New technology that affects policy process








Social media
Blogs
Open data
Freedom of information
Wisdom of the crowds
Open collaboration
Transparency in policy simulation
Agent-based simulation and hybrid modeling techniques
COMBINING DISCIPLINES
• New field is known by different names





ePolicy-making
Digital policy science
Computational intelligence
Digital science / Data science
Policy informatics
• Multidisciplinary
• Requires expertise from wide range of disciplines
SUMMARY
• Policy-making is changing due to technology
• Technology can help to develop more effective policy
• Integrating technology requires substantial effort
• Many types of technology
• Requires different levels of expertise
• All technology is not helpful for each situation
• Emerging need for inter-disciplinary specialists
Public Administration and Information
Technology
Volume 10
Series Editor
Christopher G. Reddick
San Antonio, Texas, USA
w.jager@rug.nl
More information about this series at http://www.springer.com/series/10796
w.jager@rug.nl
Marijn Janssen • Maria A. Wimmer
Ameneh Deljoo
Editors
Policy Practice and Digital
Science
Integrating Complex Systems, Social
Simulation and Public Administration
in Policy Research
2123
w.jager@rug.nl
Editors
Marijn Janssen
Faculty of Technology, Policy, and
Management
Delft University of Technology
Delft
The Netherlands
Ameneh Deljoo
Faculty of Technology, Policy, and
Management
Delft University of Technology
Delft
The Netherlands
Maria A. Wimmer
Institute for Information Systems Research
University of Koblenz-Landau
Koblenz
Germany
ISBN 978-3-319-12783-5
ISBN 978-3-319-12784-2 (eBook)
Public Administration and Information Technology
DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-12784-2
Library of Congress Control Number: 2014956771
Springer Cham Heidelberg New York London
© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015
This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the
material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation,
broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information
storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology
now known or hereafter developed.
The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication
does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant
protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use.
The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book
are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher nor the authors or the
editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors
or omissions that may have been made.
Printed on acid-free paper
Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www.springer.com)
w.jager@rug.nl
Preface
The last economic and financial crisis has heavily threatened European and other
economies around the globe. Also, the Eurozone crisis, the energy and climate
change crises, challenges of demographic change with high unemployment rates,
and the most recent conflicts in the Ukraine and the near East or the Ebola virus
disease in Africa threaten the wealth of our societies in different ways. The inability
to predict or rapidly deal with dramatic changes and negative trends in our economies
and societies can seriously hamper the wealth and prosperity of the European Union
and its Member States as well as the global networks. These societal and economic
challenges demonstrate an urgent need for more effective and efficient processes of
governance and policymaking, therewith specifically addressing crisis management
and economic/welfare impact reduction.
Therefore, investing in the exploitation of innovative information and communication technology (ICT) in the support of good governance and policy modeling
has become a major effort of the European Union to position itself and its Member
States well in the global digital economy. In this realm, the European Union has
laid out clear strategic policy objectives for 2020 in the Europe 2020 strategy1 : In
a changing world, we want the EU to become a smart, sustainable, and inclusive
economy. These three mutually reinforcing priorities should help the EU and the
Member States deliver high levels of employment, productivity, and social cohesion.
Concretely, the Union has set five ambitious objectives—on employment, innovation,
education, social inclusion, and climate/energy—to be reached by 2020. Along with
this, Europe 2020 has established four priority areas—smart growth, sustainable
growth, inclusive growth, and later added: A strong and effective system of economic governance—designed to help Europe emerge from the crisis stronger and to
coordinate policy actions between the EU and national levels.
To specifically support European research in strengthening capacities, in overcoming fragmented research in the field of policymaking, and in advancing solutions for
1
Europe 2020 http://ec.europa.eu/europe2020/index_en.htm
v
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vi
Preface
ICT supported governance and policy modeling, the European Commission has cofunded an international support action called eGovPoliNet2 . The overall objective
of eGovPoliNet was to create an international, cross-disciplinary community of researchers working on ICT solutions for governance and policy modeling. In turn,
the aim of this community was to advance and sustain research and to share the
insights gleaned from experiences in Europe and globally. To achieve this, eGovPoliNet established a dialogue, brought together experts from distinct disciplines, and
collected and analyzed knowledge assets (i.e., theories, concepts, solutions, findings,
and lessons on ICT solutions in the field) from different research disciplines. It built
on case material accumulated by leading actors coming from distinct disciplinary
backgrounds and brought together the innovative knowledge in the field. Tools, methods, and cases were drawn from the academic community, the ICT sector, specialized
policy consulting firms as well as from policymakers and governance experts. These
results were assembled in a knowledge base and analyzed in order to produce comparative analyses and descriptions of cases, tools, and scientific approaches to enrich
a common knowledge base accessible via www.policy-community.eu.
This book, entitled “Policy Practice and Digital Science—Integrating Complex
Systems, Social Simulation, and Public Administration in Policy Research,” is one
of the exciting results of the activities of eGovPoliNet—fusing community building
activities and activities of knowledge analysis. It documents findings of comparative
analyses and brings in experiences of experts from academia and from case descriptions from all over the globe. Specifically, it demonstrates how the explosive growth
in data, computational power, and social media creates new opportunities for policymaking and research. The book provides a first comprehensive look on how to take
advantage of the development in the digital world with new approaches, concepts,
instruments, and methods to deal with societal and computational complexity. This
requires the knowledge traditionally found in different disciplines including public
administration, policy analyses, information systems, complex systems, and computer science to work together in a multidisciplinary fashion and to share approaches.
This book provides the foundation for strongly multidisciplinary research, in which
the various developments and disciplines work together from a comprehensive and
holistic policymaking perspective. A wide range of aspects for social and professional
networking and multidisciplinary constituency building along the axes of technology, participative processes, governance, policy modeling, social simulation, and
visualization are tackled in the 19 papers.
With this book, the project makes an effective contribution to the overall objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy by providing a better understanding of different
approaches to ICT enabled governance and policy modeling, and by overcoming the
fragmented research of the past. This book provides impressive insights into various
theories, concepts, and solutions of ICT supported policy modeling and how stakeholders can be more actively engaged in public policymaking. It draws conclusions
2
eGovPoliNet is cofunded under FP 7, Call identifier FP7-ICT-2011-7, URL: www.policycommunity.eu
w.jager@rug.nl
Preface
vii
of how joint multidisciplinary research can bring more effective and resilient findings for better predicting dramatic changes and negative trends in our economies and
societies.
It is my great pleasure to provide the preface to the book resulting from the
eGovPoliNet project. This book presents stimulating research by researchers coming
from all over Europe and beyond. Congratulations to the project partners and to the
authors!—Enjoy reading!
Thanassis Chrissafis
Project officer of eGovPoliNet
European Commission
DG CNECT, Excellence in Science, Digital Science
w.jager@rug.nl
Contents
1
Introduction to Policy-Making in the Digital Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Marijn Janssen and Maria A. Wimmer
2
Educating Public Managers and Policy Analysts
in an Era of Informatics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Christopher Koliba and Asim Zia
15
The Quality of Social Simulation: An Example from Research
Policy Modelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Petra Ahrweiler and Nigel Gilbert
35
3
1
4
Policy Making and Modelling in a Complex World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wander Jager and Bruce Edmonds
5
From Building a Model to Adaptive Robust Decision Making
Using Systems Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Erik Pruyt
75
Features and Added Value of Simulation Models Using Different
Modelling Approaches Supporting Policy-Making: A Comparative
Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dragana Majstorovic, Maria A.Wimmer, Roy Lay-Yee, Peter Davis
and Petra Ahrweiler
95
6
57
7
A Comparative Analysis of Tools and Technologies
for Policy Making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Eleni Kamateri, Eleni Panopoulou, Efthimios Tambouris,
Konstantinos Tarabanis, Adegboyega Ojo, Deirdre Lee
and David Price
8
Value Sensitive Design of Complex Product Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Andreas Ligtvoet, Geerten van de Kaa, Theo Fens, Cees van Beers,
Paulier Herder and Jeroen van den Hoven
ix
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x
Contents
9
Stakeholder Engagement in Policy Development: Observations
and Lessons from International Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Natalie Helbig, Sharon Dawes, Zamira Dzhusupova, Bram Klievink
and Catherine Gerald Mkude
10 Values in Computational Models Revalued . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
Rebecca Moody and Lasse Gerrits
11 The Psychological Drivers of Bureaucracy: Protecting
the Societal Goals of an Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Tjeerd C. Andringa
12 Active and Passive Crowdsourcing in Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
Euripidis Loukis and Yannis Charalabidis
13
Management of Complex Systems: Toward Agent-Based
Gaming for Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
Wander Jager and Gerben van der Vegt
14 The Role of Microsimulation in the Development of Public Policy . . . 305
Roy Lay-Yee and Gerry Cotterell
15 Visual Decision Support for Policy Making: Advancing Policy
Analysis with Visualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
Tobias Ruppert, Jens Dambruch, Michel Krämer, Tina Balke, Marco
Gavanelli, Stefano Bragaglia, Federico Chesani, Michela Milano
and Jörn Kohlhammer
16 Analysis of Five Policy Cases in the Field of Energy Policy . . . . . . . . . 355
Dominik Bär, Maria A.Wimmer, Jozef Glova, Anastasia
Papazafeiropoulou and Laurence Brooks
17
Challenges to Policy-Making in Developing Countries
and the Roles of Emerging Tools, Methods and Instruments:
Experiences from Saint Petersburg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
Dmitrii Trutnev, Lyudmila Vidyasova and Andrei Chugunov
18
Sustainable Urban Development, Governance and Policy:
A Comparative Overview of EU Policies and Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
Diego Navarra and Simona Milio
19
eParticipation, Simulation Exercise and Leadership Training
in Nigeria: Bridging the Digital Divide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417
Tanko Ahmed
w.jager@rug.nl
Contributors
Tanko Ahmed National Institute for Policy and Strategic Studies (NIPSS), Jos,
Nigeria
Petra Ahrweiler EA European Academy of Technology and Innovation Assessment GmbH, Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler, Germany
Tjeerd C. Andringa University College Groningen, Institute of Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Engineering (ALICE), University of Groningen, AB,
Groningen, the Netherlands
Tina Balke University of Surrey, Surrey, UK
Dominik Bär University of Koblenz-Landau, Koblenz, Germany
Cees van Beers Faculty of Technology, Policy, and Management, Delft University
of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands
Stefano Bragaglia University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Laurence Brooks Brunel University, Uxbridge, UK
Yannis Charalabidis University of the Aegean, Samos, Greece
Federico Chesani University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Andrei Chugunov ITMO University, St. Petersburg, Russia
Gerry Cotterell Centre of Methods and Policy Application in the Social Sciences
(COMPASS Research Centre), University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
Jens Dambruch Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics Research, Darmstadt,
Germany
Peter Davis Centre of Methods and Policy Application in the Social Sciences
(COMPASS Research Centre), University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
Sharon Dawes Center for Technology in Government, University at Albany,
Albany, New York, USA
xi
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xii
Contributors
Zamira Dzhusupova Department of Public Administration and Development Management, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA),
NewYork, USA
Bruce Edmonds Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK
Theo Fens Faculty of Technology, Policy, and Management, Delft University of
Technology, Delft, The Netherlands
Marco Gavanelli University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy
Lasse Gerrits Department of Public Administration,
Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Erasmus University
Nigel Gilbert University of Surrey, Guildford, UK
Jozef Glova Technical University Kosice, Kosice, Slovakia
Natalie Helbig Center for Technology in Government, University at Albany,
Albany, New York, USA
Paulier Herder Faculty of Technology, Policy, and Management, Delft University
of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands
Jeroen van den Hoven Faculty of Technology, Policy, and Management, Delft
University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands
Wander Jager Groningen Center of Social Complexity Studies, University of
Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
Marijn Janssen Faculty of Technology, Policy, and Management, Delft University
of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands
Geerten van de Kaa Faculty of Technology, Policy, and Management, Delft
University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands
Eleni Kamateri Information Technologies Institute, Centre for Research &
Technology—Hellas, Thessaloniki, Greece
Bram Klievink Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University
of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands
Jörn Kohlhammer GRIS, TU Darmstadt & Fraunhofer IGD, Darmstadt, Germany
Christopher Koliba University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA
Michel Krämer Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics Research, Darmstadt,
Germany
Roy Lay-Yee Centre of Methods and Policy Application in the Social Sciences
(COMPASS Research Centre), University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
Deirdre Lee INSIGHT Centre for Data Analytics, NUIG, Galway, Ireland
w.jager@rug.nl
Contributors
xiii
Andreas Ligtvoet Faculty of Technology, Policy, and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands
Euripidis Loukis University of the Aegean, Samos, Greece
Dragana Majstorovic University of Koblenz-Landau, Koblenz, Germany
Michela Milano University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Simona Milio London School of Economics, Houghton Street, London, UK
Catherine Gerald Mkude Institute for IS Research, University of Koblenz-Landau,
Koblenz, Germany
Rebecca Moody Department of Public Administration, Erasmus University
Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Diego Navarra Studio Navarra, London, UK
Adegboyega Ojo INSIGHT Centre for Data Analytics, NUIG, Galway, Ireland
Eleni Panopoulou Information Technologies Institute, Centre for Research &
Technology—Hellas, Thessaloniki, Greece
Anastasia Papazafeiropoulou Brunel University, Uxbridge, UK
David Price Thoughtgraph Ltd, Somerset, UK
Erik Pruyt Faculty of Technology, Policy, and Management, Delft University of
Technology, Delft, The Netherlands; Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study,
Wassenaar, The Netherlands
Tobias Ruppert Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics Research, Darmstadt,
Germany
Efthimios Tambouris Information Technologies Institute, Centre for Research &
Technology—Hellas, Thessaloniki, Greece; University of Macedonia, Thessaloniki,
Greece
Konstantinos Tarabanis Information Technologies Institute, Centre for Research
& Technology—Hellas, Thessaloniki, Greece; University of Macedonia, Thessaloniki, Greece
Dmitrii Trutnev ITMO University, St. Petersburg, Russia
Gerben van der Vegt Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Groningen,
Groningen, The Netherlands
Lyudmila Vidyasova ITMO University, St. Petersburg, Russia
Maria A. Wimmer University of Koblenz-Landau, Koblenz, Germany
Asim Zia University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA
w.jager@rug.nl
Chapter 1
Introduction to Policy-Making in the Digital Age
Marijn Janssen and Maria A. Wimmer
We are running the 21st century using 20th century systems on
top of 19th century political structures. . . .
John Pollock, contributing editor MIT technology review
Abstract The explosive growth in data, computational power, and social media
creates new opportunities for innovating governance and policy-making. These information and communications technology (ICT) developments affect all parts of
the policy-making cycle and result in drastic changes in the way policies are developed. To take advantage of these developments in the digital world, new approaches,
concepts, instruments, and methods are needed, which are able to deal with societal complexity and uncertainty. This field of research is sometimes depicted
as e-government policy, e-policy, policy informatics, or data science. Advancing
our …
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