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SEE PG. 44 on attached book for case study. What was the public issue facing the companies in this case?Describe the “performance–expectations gap” found in the case. What were the stakeholders’ (community and school students) expectations, and how did they differ from businesses’ performance?If you applied the strategic radar screens model to this case, which of the eight environments would be most significant, and why?Apply the issue management process to this case. Which stages of the process can you identify?In your opinion, did businesses respond appropriately to this issue? Why or why not?If you had been a manager of one of the airlines or banks discussed in the case, what would you have decided to do (or not do) in the face of emerging public concern about gun violence in schoolsAPA FORMATNEED NO PLAGIARISM REPORTATTACHED PROPER REFERENCES
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Business and
Society
Stakeholders, Ethics, Public Policy
Sixteenth Edition
Anne T. Lawrence
San José State University
James Weber
Duquesne University
BUSINESS AND SOCIETY: STAKEHOLDERS, ETHICS, PUBLIC POLICY, SIXTEENTH EDITION
Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121. Copyright © 2020 by McGraw-Hill
Education. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions © 2017, 2014, and
2011. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a
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Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the
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This book is printed on acid-free paper.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 LWI 21 20 19
ISBN 978-1-260-04366-2 (bound edition)
MHID 1-260-04366-5 (bound edition)
ISBN 978-1-260-14049-1 (loose-leaf edition)
MHID 1-260-14049-0 (loose-leaf edition)
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All credits appearing on page or at the end of the book are considered to be an extension of the copyright page.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: Lawrence, Anne T., author. | Weber, James (Business ethics professor),
  author.
Title: Business and society: stakeholders, ethics, public policy / Anne T.
   Lawrence, San Jose State University, James Weber, Duquesne University.
Description: Sixteenth edition. | New York, NY : McGraw-Hill Education, [2020]
Identifiers: LCCN 2018052591 | ISBN 9781260043662 (alk. paper) | ISBN
   1260043665 (bound edition) | ISBN 9781260140491 (loose-leaf edition) |
   ISBN 1260140490 (loose-leaf edition)
Subjects: LCSH: Social responsibility of business.
Classification: LCC HD60 .F72 2020 | DDC 658.4/08—dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc
.gov/2018052591
The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication. The inclusion of a website does
not indicate an endorsement by the authors or McGraw-Hill Education, and McGraw-Hill Education does not
guarantee the accuracy of the information presented at these sites.
mheducation.com/highered
About the Authors
Anne T. Lawrence San José State University
Anne T. Lawrence is professor of management emerita at San José State University. She
holds a Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley, and completed two years of postdoctoral study at Stanford University. Her articles, cases, and reviews have appeared in many
journals, including the Academy of Management Review, Administrative Science Quarterly,
Case Research Journal, Journal of Management Education, California Management Review,
Business and Society Review, Research in Corporate Social Performance and Policy, and
Journal of Corporate Citizenship. Her cases in business and society have been reprinted
in many textbooks and anthologies. She has served as guest editor of the Case Research
Journal. She served as president of both the North American Case Research Association
(NACRA) and of the Western Casewriters Association and is a Fellow of NACRA, from
which she received a Distinguished Contributor Award in 2014. She received the Emerson
Center Award for Outstanding Case in Business Ethics (2004) and the Curtis E. Tate Award
for Outstanding Case of the Year (1998, 2009, and 2015). At San José State University,
she was named Outstanding Professor of the Year in 2005. In 2015, she received a Master
Teacher in Ethics Award from The Wheatley Institution at Brigham Young University. She
currently serves as chair of the board of the Case Research Foundation.
James Weber
Duquesne University
James Weber is a professor of management and business ethics at Duquesne University,
where he also serves as the managing director of the Institute for Ethics in Business. He
holds a Ph.D. from the University of Pittsburgh and has taught at the University of San
Francisco, University of Pittsburgh, and Marquette University. His areas of interest and
research include personal, managerial, and organizational values and cognitive moral
­reasoning. His work has appeared in Organization Science, Human Relations, Business &
Society, Journal of Business Ethics, and Business Ethics Quarterly. He received the SIM
Sumner Marcus Award for lifetime contribution to the Social Issues in Management
division of the Academy of Management in 2013 and the Best Reviewer Award from
Business & Society in 2015. He was recognized by the Social Issues in Management division with the Best Paper Award in 1989 and 1994 and received the Best Article Award
from the International Association for Business and Society in 1998. He has served as
division and program chair of the Social Issues in Management division of the Academy
of Management. He has also served as president and program chair of the International
Association of Business and Society (IABS).
iii
Preface
In a world economy that is becoming increasingly integrated and interdependent, the relationship between business and society is becoming ever more complex. The globalization of business, the emergence of civil society organizations in many nations, and rapidly
changing government regulations and international agreements have significantly altered
the job of managers and the nature of strategic decision making within the firm.
At no time has business faced greater public scrutiny or more urgent demands to act
in an ethical and socially responsible manner than at the present. Consider the following:
∙ The rise of populist and nationalist political leaders in the United States and parts of
Europe and the Middle East have led to renewed debates on the proper role of government in regulating business and protecting stakeholders. As environmental, financial,
employment, and consumer regulations have been rolled back, particularly in the United
States, businesses have had to choose whether to take advantage of loosened rules or to
follow a strategy of voluntary corporate responsibility. Long-standing trade relationships
have been upended by tariffs and other barriers on imports, helping some businesses and
hurting others. Changing immigration policy has required firms to rethink their policies
toward their foreign-born workers, including so-called Dreamers brought to the United
States illegally as children. In this rapidly changing environment, business firms have
been challenged to manage in a way that remains consistent with their values.
∙ A host of new technologies have become part of the everyday lives of billions of the
world’s people. Advances in the basic sciences are stimulating extraordinary changes in
agriculture, telecommunications, transportation, and pharmaceuticals, which have the
potential to enhance peoples’ health and quality of life. Artificial intelligence can be
used to drive vehicles, diagnose illnesses, and manage investments. Technology has
changed how we interact with others, bringing people closer together through social
networking, instant messaging, and photo and video sharing. These innovations hold
great promise. But they also raise serious ethical issues, such as those associated with
the use of the Internet to exploit or defraud others, censor free expression, or invade
individuals’ privacy. Businesses must learn to harness powerful technologies for good,
while acting responsibly and ethically toward their many stakeholders.
∙ Businesses in the United States and other nations are transforming the employment
relationship, abandoning practices that once provided job security and guaranteed pensions in favor of highly flexible but less secure forms of employment. The rise of the
“gig” economy has transformed many workers into self-employed contractors. Many
jobs, including those in the service sector, are being outsourced to the emerging economies of China, India, and other nations. As jobs shift abroad, multinational corporations
are challenged to address their obligations to workers in far-flung locations with very
different cultures and to respond to initiatives, like the Responsible Business Alliance
Code of Conduct, which call for voluntary commitment to enlightened labor standards
and human rights. The #MeToo movement has focused a spotlight on sexual harassment
and abusive behavior in the workplace, and led to the fall of well-known executives and
media personalities and calls for change in workplace culture.
∙ Severe weather events—hurricanes, floods, and wildfires—have urgently focused
attention on the human impact on natural systems, prompting both businesses and
iv
Preface v
governments to act. An emerging consensus about the causes and risks of climate
change is leading many companies to adopt new practices, and once again the nations
of the world have experimented with public policies designed to limit the emissions
of greenhouse gases, most notably in the Paris Agreement. Many businesses have
cut air pollution, curbed solid waste, and designed products and buildings to be more
energy-efficient, saving money in the process. A better understanding of how human
activities affect natural resources is producing a growing understanding that economic
growth must be achieved in balance with environmental protection if development is to
be sustainable.
∙ Many regions of the world and its nations are developing at an extraordinary rate. Yet,
the prosperity that accompanies economic growth is not shared equally. Access to health
care, adequate nutrition, and education remain unevenly distributed among and within
the world’s nations, and inequalities of wealth and income have become greater than
they have been in many years. These trends have challenged businesses to consider the
impact of their compensation, recruitment, and professional development practices on
the persistent—and in some cases, growing—gap between the haves and the have-nots.
Big corporate tax cuts in the United States have required companies to decide whether
to distribute their windfalls to their executives, shareholders, employees, or customers;
to invest in new jobs; or to buy back stock.
∙ The opioid epidemic has focused attention on the role of drug companies, distributors,
and pharmacies—as well as government regulators—in contributing to the scourge of
addiction, disability, and death caused by narcotics. The continuing pandemic of AIDS
in sub-Saharan Africa and the threat of a swine or avian flu, the Zika virus, or another
Ebola outbreak have compelled drug makers to rethink both their pricing policies and
their research priorities. Many businesses must consider the delicate balance between
their intellectual property rights and the urgent demands of public health, particularly in
the developing world.
∙ In many nations, legislators have questioned business’s influence on politics. Business
has a legitimate role to play in the public policy process, but it has on occasion shaded
over into undue influence and even corruption. Technology offers candidates and political parties new ways to reach out and inform potential voters, but it has also created new
opportunities for manipulation of the electoral process through deceptive messaging.
Businesses the world over are challenged to determine their legitimate scope of influence and how to voice their interests most effectively in the public policy process.
The new Sixteenth Edition of Business and Society addresses this complex agenda of
issues and their impact on business and its stakeholders. It is designed to be the required
textbook in an undergraduate or graduate course in Business and Society; Business, Government, and Society; Social Issues in Management; or the Environment of Business. It may
also be used, in whole or in part, in courses in Business Ethics and Public Affairs Management. This new edition of the text is also appropriate for an undergraduate sociology course
that focuses on the role of business in society or on contemporary issues in business.
The core argument of Business and Society is that corporations serve a broad public
purpose: to create value for society. All companies must make a profit for their owners.
Indeed, if they did not, they would not long survive. However, corporations create many
other kinds of value as well. They are responsible for professional development for their
employees, innovative new products for their customers, and generosity to their communities. They must partner with a wide range of individuals and groups in society to advance
collaborative goals. In our view, corporations have multiple obligations, and all stakeholders’ interests must be considered.
vi Preface
A Tradition of Excellence
Since the 1960s, when Professors Keith Davis and Robert Blomstrom wrote the first edition of this book, Business and Society has maintained a position of leadership by discussing central issues of corporate social performance in a form that students and faculty have
found engaging and stimulating. The leadership of the two founding authors, and later of
Professors William C. Frederick and James E. Post, helped Business and Society to achieve
a consistently high standard of quality and market acceptance. Thanks to these authors’
remarkable eye for the emerging issues that shape the organizational, social, and public
policy environments in which students will soon live and work, the book has added value
to the business education of many thousands of students.
Business and Society has continued through several successive author teams to be the
market leader in its field. The current authors bring a broad background of business and
society research, teaching, consulting, and case development to the ongoing evolution of
the text. The new Sixteenth Edition of Business and Society builds on its legacy of market
leadership by reexamining such central issues as the role of business in society, the nature
of corporate responsibility and global citizenship, business ethics practices, and the complex roles of government and business in a global community.
For Instructors
For instructors, this textbook offers a complete set of supplements.
Instructor Library
The Connect Management Instructor Library is a repository for additional resources to
improve student engagement in and out of class. The instructor can select and use any asset
that enhances their lecture. The Connect Instructor Library includes an extensive instructor’s resource manual—fully revised for this edition—with lecture outlines, discussion
case questions and answers, tips from experienced instructors, and extensive case teaching
notes. A computerized test bank and power point slides for every chapter are also provided.
Preface vii
Create
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For Students
Business and Society has long been popular with students because of its lively writing,
up-to-date examples, and clear explanations of theory. This textbook has benefited greatly
from feedback over the years from thousands of students who have used the material in the
authors’ own classrooms. Its strengths are in many ways a testimony to the students who
have used earlier generations of Business and Society.
The new Sixteenth Edition of the text is designed to be as student-friendly as
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reading and study. Numerous figures, exhibits, and real-world business examples (set
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end of the book provides definitions for bold-faced and other important terms. Internet references and a full section-by-section bibliography guide students who wish
to do further research on topics of their choice, and subject and name indexes help
students locate items in the book.
Students—study more efficiently, retain more
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