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Create a Research Paper showing what you researched.Research Topic: porcelain dolls The research paper should be a minimum of 6 pages and use at least three secondary sources (nothing like Wikipedia, please). The last page of the research paper will be an MLA-format Works Cited page.For example, since the topic is on porcelain dolls you would look up who the earliest doll makers were: what were their names? their stories? Maybe you would have a section on Leon Casimir Bru. Maybe another section on Henri Chevrot. Etc. And you also need information about the dolls: What were the dolls made of? Who were they made for (in other words, were they meant for all children, or wealthy children, or adult collectors)? Were they made in workshops or factories? Etc. Your research paper would include as much information as possible about these early dolls and the stories associated with them.1. cite all the sources you used.3. there should be an a. introduction b. body paragraphsc. conclusionHere are some additional questions you can answer: who invented it? Where? Are there any examples or pictures of ancient porcelain dolls? How did porcelain dolls change over the years? What is different about today’s porcelain dolls? And so forth.Take a look at the two research paper examples attached so they can help you out.


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3D Printing: Imagining a New World – Museum Research Paper
Any respectable museum is built upon a strong base of knowledge. When planning my
museum, I had a rough idea of what exhibits I wanted to display so I took to the Internet to find
out more. First I delved into the history of 3D printers. I wanted to find examples of old
technology used for 3D printers and looked for models of printers which I could display in my
museum. The focus of my research was to find inventions which signified breakthroughs in the
technology of 3D printing and to learn a bit about the innovations which drove them.
Through my research I found that the idea of 3D printing was first introduced by Hideo
Kodama of Nagoya Municipal Industrial Research Institute in 1981. He proposed the idea of
using UV light to harden photopolymers and construct a model layer-by-layer, which would
provide a cheap and quick method for prototyping designs (Sivertsen 1). However, nothing much
came of Kodama’s idea until 1984 when inventor Chuck Hull developed stereolithography, a
technique which involves hitting a vat of liquid photopolymer with a UV laser to harden it
(Goldberg 1). He also developed the STL file format (still used today) which allowed designers
to create digital 3D models that would later be printed (Sivertsen 1). Hull founded the company
3D Systems and went on to produce and market the first commercial 3D printer, the SLA-1 in
1987 (“History of 3D Printing 1”). Other competitors in the 3D printing industry soon emerged,
such as EOS with their Stereos printer, which also made use of the same process of
stereolithography (Wohlers, Gornet 1).
Meanwhile, other 3D printing processes were also being developed such as FDM, or
fused deposition modeling, which constructs models by “heating and extruding thermoplastic
filament” (“Fused Deposition Modeling 1). This technology was invented in 1989 by Scott
Crump (Sivertsen 1), and he used this discovery to found his own 3D printing company,
Stratasys. Stratasys began to produce printers which made use of this process, releasing the
Genisys in 1996 (Wohlers, Gornet 2). In 1996 3D Systems released the Actua 2100 which
utilized a deposition system similar to an ink-jet, fabricating objects using layers of wax (“3-D
Printing” 1). Another breakthrough occurred in 2000 with the release of Z Corp’s Z402C printer,
the first ever 3D printer which allowed for multiple colors (Wohlers, Gornet 4). A different type
of 3D printing process called direct metal laser sintering, which involves constructing metal
pieces by melting metal powder with a laser, also made it’s debut in 2003 with the introduction
of EOS’s EOSINT M270 (“EOSINT M 270” 1).
However, it took the RepRap project, which was started by Dr. Adrian Bowyer in 2005,
to start the process of bringing 3D printing to the masses. The goal of RepRap was to create a
“low-cost 3D printer capable of replicating itself” (Sivertsen 1). In 2008 RepRap released
Darwin, a 3D printer which could produce some of its own parts and which was relatively cheap
to assemble – only hundreds of dollars rather than thousands (Sivertsen 1). In 2009 3D printers
entered the market, with printer kits including the BfB RapMan and Makerbot Cupcake
(“History of 3D Printing” 1). Since then, 3D printers have become cheaper and more accessible
than ever.
Looking into household items which could be 3D printed, I wanted to find some objects
to display which could show how 3D printing could be used in everyday life. Rather than some
expensive machine fabricating intricate parts, I wanted to find products which the average person
would find useful and cool. If visitors found something they liked, they could use the 3D printers
at the museum to print it out and take it home. Much of the products I found focused around
technology – tablet stands, cable holders, even a mini laptop frame. There were also some useful
household items including carabiners, bag clips, and key cases (Patkar 1). Another sizable
product category were the tools – pliers, hammers, and wrenches (Yusuf 1). Particularly
interesting was the phone amplifier which could be used as a speaker without the need for
electricity (Patkar 1). Other notable objects were the customizable coin holder, the digital
sundial, and the self-watering planter (Patkar 1). With my research I found objects that were
complex and intricate, things that would interest visitors and demonstrate that 3D printing could
do more than simply spit out a bearing mount or a machine part. With 3D printing you have the
freedom to create almost anything out of only plastic. There’s even a lion figurine that has a
mane made of hundreds of strands of hair (Medelis 1).
However, with my museum I also wanted to make it clear that 3D printers were not
limited to simply printing toys and other knick-knacks. I wanted to showcase applications of 3D
printing to problems in the world today. Many industries today utilize 3D printing – the
technology is used by doctors, engineers, and even teachers (Sculpteo 1). For instance, 3D
printing is used in the aerospace industry to produce lightweight durable parts which when
compared to CNC “perform better technically, weigh less, and provide better electrical
insulation” (“3D Printing in the Aerospace Industry” 1). Furthermore it facilitates the design
process as it allows engineers to quickly fabricate parts and makes it easy to iterate and modify
previous designs. Since there is no need to create a mold or invest in expensive tools, 3D printers
make for a more cost-effective production method when manufacturing experimental parts which
have a “low production volume” (“3D Printing in Aerospace & Aeronautics: Prototypes &
Designs” 1).
Similarly, the automotive industry also takes advantage of the benefits which 3D printing
provides with respect to manufacturing. For instance, Volkswagen Autoeuropa greatly reduced
costs by using 3D printing to create “custom tools, jigs, fixtures, and other manufacturing
aids” (De Vries 1). Designers at Eventuri use 3D printing for quickly prototyping their complex
intake systems, making sure they snugly fit into the internals of the car (De Vries 1). In addition,
3D printing is well suited to produce the complex parts that go into cars which are often costly to
produce. At Lotus Renault GP, engineers “use stereolithography and laser sintering to experiment
with cooling ducts and fins, eliminating material that’s inessential to function” (Royte 3).
Architects use 3D printing to create physical models to plan and visualize their designs,
the models offering a different perspective from a traditional 2D sketch. Compared to other
model building technologies, the 3D printed structures are cheaper as well as “stronger than
traditional models and won’t buckle or break over time.” Furthermore since the designs are
stored electronically they can be easily modified and saved for future use (“Examples of 3D
Printing in the Architecture Industry” 1).
However, 3D printing is not only restricted to the worlds of design and industrial
manufacturing. 3D printing offers teachers a cheap way to print out models of chemical
compounds, organs and atoms, allowing students to interact with objects which would normally
be impossible to obtain. They could use printers to work with mechanical designs and prototype
their creations as well (“10 Ways 3D Printing Can Be Used In Education” 1). We see that 3D
printing can be used in the humanitarian realm as well, allowing people in the field to print
“complex spare parts” which could be “adapted to fit local requirements” and have them
immediately, rather than waiting for supplies to be transported from far away (E. James, L.
James 1). For instance Field Ready, a humanitarian aid group, used 3D printing to help a health
clinic in Haiti, manufacturing items such as prosthetic hands, needles holders, S-hooks, bottles,
and umbilical cord clamps. In particular the umbilical cord clamps “resulted in a reduction in the
risk of neo-natal umbilical sepsis, and more efficient (and safer) health worker and patient areas”
(E. James, L. James 1). Field Ready also visited Kathmandu, helping to repair baby warmers at
the Grande International Hospital and replacing pipe fittings in the city (E. James, L. James 1).
Some of the most innovative uses of 3D printing technology today can be found in the
medical field. Surgeons use it to create 3D models to study and prepare before an operation.
These models are able to display “some of the most complicated structures in the human body”
and are better than flat MRI or CT scans (Ventola 1). Doctors also use 3D printing to “fabricate
dental, spinal, and hip implants” from titanium jaws to prosthetic ears (Ventola 1). In fact, 3D
printing is extensively used in the manufacturing of hearing aids – 99% of hearing aids
manufactured today are custom-made with 3D printing (Ventola 1).
However, what’s even more exciting are the potential uses for 3D printing in the future. I
lastly looked for information about where 3D printing is headed so visitors to my museum could
see what the future might have in store. Already bioprinting technology is being developed to
someday produce organs, tissues, and bones for patients. Proof of concept tests have already
begun, with researches successfully printing knees, heart valves, and even an artificial liver
(Ventola 1). Many experts in the 3D printing field believe that “replacement parts production” is
another area ripe for growth, where 3D printers would allow any part to be produced, even those
“extremely difficult to find or may not even exist anymore” (Karin 1). On a tastier note, a 3D
printer called the Foodini is being developed, which “uses fresh ingredients loaded into stainless
steel capsules to make foods like pizza, stuffed pasta, quiche, and brownies” (Wiggers 1).
There’s even a 3D printed car called the Urbee 2 being designed which will have “more than 50
percent of the car… 3D printed.” The inventor hopes the car will be inexpensive and
environmentally friendly to build (Bargmann 1).
From simple plastic parts to intricate metal contraptions, from expensive industry
machinery to cheap consumer appliances, 3D printers have grown and evolved along with the
industries that use them. While clearly useful in manufacturing, 3D printing also has its uses in
other fields like health and humanitarian aid. In the future, who knows what we will be able to
print – perhaps a five course meal or even a replacement heart. One day it may be that it is only
our imagination which limits what we can create.
Works Cited
“3D Printing in the Aerospace Industry.” Javelin. Javelin Technologies, n.d. Web. 19 July
“3D Printing in the Automotive Industry.” Javelin. Javelin Technologies, n.d. Web. 19 July
Bargmann, Joe. “The 3D-Printed Car That Will Drive Across the Country.” Popular
Mechanics. N.p., 4 Nov. 2013. Web. 19 July 2017.
“Examples of 3D Printing in the Architecture Industry.” Javelin. Javelin Technologies, n.d.
Web. 19 July 2017.
Goldberg, Dana. “History of 3D Printing: It’s Older Than You Think.” Redshift. Autodesk,
5 Sept. 2014. Web. 19 July 2017.
“History of 3D Printing.” 3D Printing Industry. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 July 2017.
Icmarsa. “3-D Printing.” Tiki-Toki. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 July 2017.
James, Eric, and Laura James. “3D Printing Humanitarian Supplies in the Field.” HPN.
Humanitarian Policy Group, Apr. 2016. Web. 19 July 2017.
Medelis. “Lion with Hair – Small.” Thingiverse. N.p., 1 Feb. 2017. Web. 19 July 2017.
Patkar, Mihir. “30 Useful Ways 3D Printing Could Be Used At Home.” MakeUseOf. N.p.,
29 Aug. 2016. Web. 19 July 2017.
Pettis, Bre. “MakerBot Cupcake CNC Sale!” MakerBot. MakerBot Industries, 22 Sept.
2010. Web. 19 July 2017.
Prindle, Drew, and Dallon Adams. “Skip Bed Bath & Beyond and 3D Print These Useful
Doodads at Home.” Digital Trends. N.p., 26 May 2017. Web. 19 July 2017.
Royte, Elizabeth. “What Lies Ahead for 3-D Printing?” Smithsonian
Institution, May 2013. Web. 19 July 2017.
“Sculpteo.” 3D Printing in Aerospace & Aeronautics: Prototypes & Designs. Sculpteo, n.d.
Web. 19 July 2017.
Sivertsen, Espen. “A Brief History of Additive Manufacturing.” Type A Machines. N.p., 30
Sept. 2016. Web. 19 July 2017.
“10 Ways 3D Printing Can Be Used In Education.” TeachThought. N.p., 27 Nov. 2015.
Web. 19 July 2017.
Ventola, C. Lee. “Medical Applications for 3D Printing: Current and Projected Uses.”
NCBI: National Center for Biotechnology Information. MediMedia USA, Inc., Oct.
2014. Web. 19 July 2017.
Vries, Caspar De. “Eventuri: Functional and Fit Testing of Performance Car Intakes.” Ultimaker, 07 Dec. 2016. Web. 19 July 2017.
Vries, Caspar De. “Volkswagen Autoeuropa: Maximizing Production Efficiency with 3D
Printed Tools, Jigs, and Fixtures.” Ultimaker, 21 June 2017. Web. 19
July 2017.
“Where Is 3D Printing Used?” Ultimaker, n.d. Web. 19 July 2017.
Wiggers, Kyle. “From Pixels to Plate, Food Has Become 3D Printing’s Delicious New
Frontier.” Digital Trends. Digital Trends, 19 Apr. 2017. Web. 19 July 2017.
Wohlers, Terry, and Tim Gornet. “History of Additive Manufacturing.” Wohlers Report
(2014): n. pag. Wohlers Report, 2014. Web. 19 July 2017.
Yusuf, Bulent. “50 Cool Things to 3D Print Which Are Actually Useful.” All3DP. N.p., 27
June 2017. Web. 19 July 2017.
● SLA-1 – first 3D printer
● Stereos – first printer by EOS
● Genisys from Stratasys – uses FDM
● Actua 2100 – 3D Systems Actua 2100 1996. The Actua 2100 was 3D Systems’ first inkjet-style 3D printer, depositing wax material layer by layer to build a model that could
subsequently be used for metal casting. At launch, the Actua 2100 cost around $65,000.
● Z402C-3D
Cheap printer with powder and water
● Reprap darwin – cheap, opensource kit; uses FDM
● Makerbot cupcake cnc
● Sla-1
● Fused deposition modeling / fused filament fabrication
○ Scott Crump
○ Rep-rap today
○ Stratasys
● EOS (Electro Optical Systems) GmbH and Laser Sintering
○ Stereos 1990
● Reprap in 2005
○ Uses FDM, open source, low-cost
○ Darwin
● BfB RapMan 3D printer
● Makerbot replicator
(or “additive manufacturing”, which I learned was its official name)
Reprap Darwin
Links visited
“Making Lemonade” Museum Research Paper
I will be creating and presenting the “Making Lemonade” Museum, a museum that will
display artwork of artists that had or have physical or mental disabilities. There are people in the
world who discourage themselves or others when they were pursuing a certain dream but was
halted by their disability, whether it was because of a medical condition, like terminal cancer, or
a physical condition that prevented them from freely doing what they please.
The “Making Lemonade” Museum stems from the quote, “When life gives you lemons,
make lemonade” (Hubbard, “Selected Writings of Elbert Hubbard”). The quote was originally
coined by Elbert Hubbard, a Christian anarchist who was also a writer and included, “He picked
up the lemons that Fate had sent him and started a lemonade-stand” (Hubbard, “Selected
Writings of Elbert Hubbard”). Other writers, such as Dale Carnegie from 1948, also used the
quote like the one I first referenced (Carnegie, “How to Stop Worrying and Start Living”).
Lemons can refer to obstacles that are encountered in life, as lemons can be sour and difficult to
chew on. However, if you were to make lemonade with the lemons that you have, you would not
have something sour to drink, but something sweet and delightful. People with disabilities may
encounter different kinds of obstacles in life along with the disability that they originally had or
have. Nevertheless, there are great artists, past and present, who took the lemons that life gave
them and made sweet lemonade. They used their disabilities to their advantage or overcame
their disabilities in various ways. The “Making Lemonade” Museum will display their artwork
in celebration of conquering life’s obstacles and making sweet and beautiful artwork that people
can enjoy.
The location of The “Making Lemonade” Museum will be in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
The reason for the location will be explained near the end of this research paper. The price of the
museum will be $10. The museum itself will display nine different artists from the past and
present with varying disabilities while displaying about three different artworks from their
personal showcase. All of the areas for each individual artists will have a section where it will
describe their disability while displaying their remarkable artwork. The tenth artist will be the
main exhibition for the day and it will display seven of their different artworks. By the end of
the visitor’s time, they will encounter an area near the exit where there will be a lemonade stand
selling lemonade. One cup will cost $1 and 50 cents of each purchase will be collected and
donated to Art-Reach, an organization that “creates opportunities for people from the disability
community and/or living with low-income to have greater access to arts and culture” (Art-Reach, Art-Reach’s headquarter is located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, so I wanted to
create The “Making Lemonade” Museum in this city, which is also where I went for my
undergraduate years so I am very familiar with the area.
The first artist t …
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