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5E
VOICES OF FREEDOM
“““““““”H““““““““
A DOCUMENTARY HISTORY
VOLUME
1
ERIC FONER
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V OICES OF
F REEDOM
A Documentary History
Fifth Edition
Vo l u m e 1
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V OICES OF
F REEDOM
A Documentary History
Fifth Edition
EDITED BY
E R I C
F O N E R
!
Vo l u m e 1
n
W. W. N O R T O N & C O M PA N Y . N E W Y O R K . L O N D O N
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W. W. Norton & Company has been independent since its founding in 1923, when
William Warder Norton and Mary D. Herter Norton first published lectures delivered
at the People’s Institute, the adult education division of New York City’s Cooper
Union. The firm soon expanded its program beyond the Institute, publishing books
by celebrated academics from America and abroad. By midcentury, the two major
pillars of Norton’s publishing program—trade books and college texts—were fi rmly
established. In the 1950s, the Norton family transferred control of the company to its
employees, and today—with a staff of four hundred and a comparable number of
trade, college, and professional titles published each year—W. W. Norton & Company
stands as the largest and oldest publishing house owned wholly by its employees.
Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011, 2008, 2005 by W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
All rights reserved
Printed in the United States of America
Manufacturing by Maple Press
Book design by Antonina Krass
Composition by Westchester Book Group
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: Foner, Eric, 1943– editor.
Title: Voices of freedom: a documentary history / edited by Eric Foner.
Description: Fifth edition. | New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2016. |
Includes bibliographical references.
Identifiers: LCCN 2016045203 | ISBN 9780393614497 (pbk., v. 1) |
ISBN 9780393614503 (pbk., v. 2)
Subjects: LCSH: United States—History—Sources. | United States—Politics
and government—Sources.
Classification: LCC E173 .V645 2016 | DDC 973—dc23 LC record available at
https://lccn.loc.gov/2016045203
ISBN: 978-0-393-61449-7 (pbk.)
W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10110
wwnorton .com
W. W. Norton & Company Ltd., 15 Carlisle Street, London W1D 3BS
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0
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ERIC FONER is DeWitt Clinton Professor of History at Columbia
University, where he earned his B.A. and Ph.D. In his teaching and
scholarship, he focuses on the Civil War and Reconstruction, slavery,
and nineteenth- century America. Professor Foner’s publications
include Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican
Party Before the Civil War; Tom Paine and Revolutionary America; Politics
and Ideology in the Age of the Civil War; Nothing but Freedom: Emancipation and Its Legacy; Reconstruction: American’s Unfinished Revolution,
1863–1877; Freedom’s Lawmakers: A Directory of Black Officeholders During Reconstruction; The Story of American Freedom; Who Owns History?
Rethinking the Past in a Changing World; and Forever Free: The Story of
Emancipation and Reconstruction. His history of Reconstruction won
the Los Angeles Times Book Award for History, the Bancroft Prize,
and the Parkman Prize. He served as president of the Organization
of American Historians, the American Historical Association, and
the Society of American Historians. His most recent trade publications include The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery,
which won numerous awards including the Lincoln Prize, the
Bancroft Prize, and the Pulitzer Prize, and Gateway to Freedom: The
Hidden History of the Underground Railroad.
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Contents
Preface
xv
1
A New World
1. Adam Smith, The Results of Colonization (1776)
1
2. Giovanni da Verrazano, Encountering Native Americans (1524)
4
3. Bartolomé de las Casas on Spanish Treatment of the Indians,
from History of the Indies (1528)
4. The Pueblo Revolt (1680)
8
11
5. Father Jean de Bré beuf on the Customs and Beliefs
of the Hurons (1635)
15
6. Jewish Petition to the Dutch West India Company (1655)
20
2
Beginnings of En glish America, 1607– 1660
7. Exchange between John Smith and Powhatan (1608)
23
8. Sending Women to Virginia (1622)
26
9. Maryland Act Concerning Religion (1644)
28
vii
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Contents
viii
10. John Winthrop, Speech to the Massachusetts General Court (1645)
30
11. The Trial of Anne Hutchinson (1637)
33
12. Roger Williams, Letter to the Town of Providence (1655)
41
13. The Levellers, The Agreement of the People Presented to
the Council of the Army (1647)
42
3
Creating Anglo- America, 1660– 1750
14. William Penn, Pennsylvania Charter of Privileges and
Liberties (1701)
47
15. Nathaniel Bacon on Bacon’s Rebellion (1676)
49
16. Letter by an Immigrant to Pennsylvania (1769)
54
17. An Apprentice’s Indenture Contract (1718)
56
18. Memorial against Non-English Immigration (1727)
57
19. Gottlieb Mittelberger on the Trade in Indentured
Servants (1750)
60
20. Women in the Household Economy (1709)
63
4
Slavery, Freedom, and the
Struggle for Empire to 1763
21. Olaudah Equiano on Slavery (1789)
65
22. Advertisements for Runaway Slaves and Servants (1738)
70
23. The Independent Reflector on Limited Monarchy
and Liberty (1752)
24. The Trial of John Peter Zenger (1735)
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72
76
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Contents
ix
25. The Great Awakening Comes to Connecticut (1740)
79
26. Pontiac, Two Speeches (1762 and 1763)
82
5
The American Revolution, 1763– 1783
27. Virginia Resolutions on the Stamp Act (1765)
86
28. New York Workingmen Demand a Voice in the Revolutionary
Struggle (1770)
88
29. Association of the New York Sons of Liberty (1773)
91
30. Farmington, Connecticut, Resolutions on the Intolerable
Acts (1774)
94
31. Thomas Paine, Common Sense (1776)
32. Samuel Seabury’s Argument against Independence (1775)
96
103
6
The Revolution Within
33. Abigail and John Adams on Women and the American
Revolution (1776)
106
34. Jefferson’s Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom (1779)
109
35. The Right of “Free Suffrage” (1776)
112
36. Noah Webster on Equality (1787)
114
37. Liberating Indentured Servants (1784)
117
38. Letter of Phillis Wheatley (1774)
118
39. Benjamin Rush, Thoughts upon Female Education (1787)
120
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Contents
x
7
Founding a Nation, 1783–1791
40. Petition of Inhabitants West of the Ohio River (1785)
123
41. David Ramsey, American Innovations in Government (1789)
125
42. Patrick Henry’s Anti-Federalist Argument (1788)
127
43. A July Fourth Oration (1800)
131
44. Thomas Jefferson on Race and Slavery (1781)
134
45. J. Hector St. John de Crèvecoeur, “What, Then, Is the
American?” (1782)
138
8
Securing the Republic, 1790– 1815
46. Benjamin F. Bache, A Defense of the French Revolution
(1792–1793)
141
47. Address of the Democratic-Republican Society of
Pennsylvania (1794)
143
48. Judith Sargent Murray, “On the Equality of the Sexes” (1790)
146
49. Protest against the Alien and Sediton Acts (1798)
151
50. George Tucker on Gabriel’s Rebellion (1801)
154
51. Tecumseh on Indians and Land (1810)
157
52. Felix Grundy, Battle Cry of the War Hawks (1811)
159
53. Mercy Otis Warren on Religion and Virtue (1805)
161
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Contents
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9
The Market Revolution, 1800– 1840
54. Complaint of a Lowell Factory Worker (1845)
165
55. Joseph Smith, The Wentworth Letter (1842)
167
56. A Woman in the Westward Movement (1824)
171
57. Ralph Waldo Emerson, “The American Scholar” (1837)
174
58. Henry David Thoreau, Walden (1854)
178
59. Charles G. Finney, “Sinners Bound to Change Their
Own Hearts” (1836)
182
10
Democracy in America, 1815– 1840
60. The Monroe Doctrine (1823)
187
61. John Quincy Adams on the Role of the National
Government (1825)
190
62. John C. Calhoun, The Concurrent Majority (ca. 1845)
194
63. Virginia Petition for the Right to Vote (1829)
197
64. Appeal of the Cherokee Nation (1830)
201
65. Appeal of Forty Thousand Citizens (1838)
203
11
The Peculiar Institution
66. Frederick Douglass on the Desire for Freedom (1845)
207
67. Rise of the Cotton Kingdom (1836)
210
68. William Sewall, The Results of British Emancipation (1860)
212
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69. Rules of Highland Plantation (1838)
215
70. Slavery and the Bible (1850)
217
71. Letter by a Fugitive Slave (1840)
219
72. Solomon Northup, The New Orleans Slave Market (1853)
221
12
An Age of Reform, 1820– 1840
73. Robert Owen, “The First Discourse on a New System
of Society” (1825)
225
74. Philip Schaff on Freedom as Self-Restraint (1855)
229
75. David Walker’s Appeal (1829)
232
76. Frederick Douglass on the Fourth of July (1852)
235
77. Catharine Beecher on the “Duty of American Females” (1837)
240
78. Angelina Grimké on Women’s Rights (1837)
244
79. Declaration of Sentiments of the Seneca Falls Convention (1848)
248
13
A House Divided, 1840– 1861
80. John L. O’Sullivan, Manifest Destiny (1845)
253
81. A Protest against Anti-Chinese Prejudice (1852)
257
82. Henry David Thoreau, “Resistance to Civil Government” (1849)
260
83. William Henry Seward, “The Irrepressible Conflict” (1858)
265
84. Texas Declaration of Independence (1836)
269
85. The Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858)
272
86. South Carolina Ordinance of Secession (1860)
277
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14
A New Birth of Freedom: The Civil War, 1861– 1865
87. Alexander H. Stephens, The Cornerstone
of the Confederacy (1861)
280
88. Marcus M. Spiegel, Letter of a Civil War Soldier (1864)
284
89. Samuel S. Cox Condemns Emancipation (1862)
288
90. Abraham Lincoln, The Gettysburg Address (1863)
290
91. Frederick Douglass on Black Soldiers (1863)
291
92. Letter by the Mother of a Black Soldier (1863)
295
93. Abraham Lincoln, Address at Sanitary Fair, Baltimore (1864)
297
94. Mary Livermore on Women and the War (1883)
300
15
“What Is Freedom?”: Reconstruction, 1865– 1877
95. Petition of Black Residents of Nashville (1865)
304
96. Petition of Committee on Behalf of the Freedmen to Andrew
Johnson (1865)
307
97. The Mississippi Black Code (1865)
310
98. A Sharecropping Contract (1866)
314
99. Elizabeth Cady Stanton, “Home Life” (ca. 1875)
316
100. Frederick Douglass, “The Composite Nation” (1869)
320
101. Robert B. Elliott on Civil Rights (1874)
326
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Preface
Voices of Freedom is a documentary history of American freedom from
the earliest days of European exploration and settlement of the Western Hemisphere to the present. I have prepared it as a companion
volume to Give Me Liberty!, my survey textbook of the history of the
United States centered on the theme of freedom. This fifth edition of
Voices of Freedom is organized in chapters that correspond to those in
the fifth edition of the textbook. But it can also stand independently
as a documentary introduction to the history of American freedom.
The two volumes include more than twenty documents not available in the third edition.
No idea is more fundamental to Americans’ sense of themselves
as individuals and as a nation than freedom, or liberty, with which it
is almost always used interchangeably. The Declaration of Independence lists liberty among mankind’s inalienable rights; the Constitution announces as its purpose to secure liberty’s blessings. “Every
man in the street, white, black, red or yellow,” wrote the educator
and statesman Ralph Bunche in 1940, “knows that this is ‘the land
of the free’ . . . ‘the cradle of liberty.’ ”
The very universality of the idea of freedom, however, can be misleading. Freedom is not a fixed, timeless category with a single
unchanging definition. Rather, the history of the United States is, in
part, a story of debates, disagreements, and struggles over freedom.
Crises such as the American Revolution, the Civil War, and the Cold
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Preface
War have permanently transformed the idea of freedom. So too
have demands by various groups of Americans for greater freedom
as they understood it.
In choosing the documents for Voices of Freedom, I have attempted
to convey the multifaceted history of this compelling and contested
idea. The documents reflect how Americans at dif ferent points in
our history have defined freedom as an overarching idea, or have
understood some of its many dimensions, including political, religious, economic, and personal freedom. For each chapter, I have
tried to select documents that highlight the specific discussions of
freedom that occurred during that time period, and some of the
divergent interpretations of freedom at each point in our history. I
hope that students will gain an appreciation of how the idea of freedom has expanded over time, and how it has been extended into
more and more areas of Americans’ lives. But at the same time, the
documents suggest how freedom for some Americans has, at various times in our history, rested on lack of freedom— slavery, indentured servitude, the subordinate position of women—for others.
The documents that follow reflect the kinds of historical developments that have shaped and reshaped the idea of freedom, including
war, economic change, territorial expansion, social protest movements, and international involvement. The selections try to convey a
sense of the rich cast of characters who have contributed to the history of American freedom. They include presidential proclamations
and letters by runaway slaves, famous court cases and obscure manifestos, ideas dominant in a particular era and those of radicals and
dissenters. They range from advertisements in colonial newspapers
seeking the return of runaway indentured servants and slaves
to debates in the early twentieth century over the defi nition of
economic freedom, the controversy over the proposed Equal Rights
Amendment for women, and recent Supreme Court decisions dealing
with the balance between liberty and security in wartime.
I have been particularly attentive to how battles at the boundaries
of freedom—the efforts of racial minorities, women, and others to
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Preface
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secure greater freedom—have deepened and transformed the concept and extended it into new realms. In addition, in this fifth edition
I have included a number of new documents that illustrate how the
history of the western United States, and more particularly the borderlands area of the Southwest, have affected the evolution of the idea
of freedom. These include the Texas Declaration of Independence of
1836, a reminiscence about homesteading in the West in the late
nineteenth century, a report on the status of Mexican-Americans in
the aftermath of World War II, and an explanation of the so-called
Sagebrush Rebellion of the 1970s.
All of the documents in this collection are “primary sources”—
that is, they were written or spoken by men and women enmeshed in
the events of the past, rather than by later historians. They therefore
offer students the opportunity to encounter ideas about freedom in
the actual words of participants in the drama of American history.
Some of the documents are reproduced in their entirety. Most are
excerpts from longer interviews, articles, or books. In editing the documents, I have tried to remain faithful to the original purpose of the
author, while highlighting the portion of the text that deals directly
with one or another aspect of freedom. In most cases, I have reproduced the wording of the original texts exactly. But I have modernized the spelling and punctuation of some early documents to make
them more understandable to the modern reader. Each document is
preceded by a brief introduction that places it in historical context
and is followed by two questions that highlight key elements of the
argument and may help to focus students’ thinking about the issues
raised by the author.
A number of these documents were suggested by students in a U.S.
history class at Juniata College in Huntingdon, Pennsylvania, taught
by Professor David Hsiung. I am very grateful to these students, who
responded enthusiastically to an assignment by Professor Hsiung
that asked them to locate documents that might be included in this
edition of Voices of Freedom and to justify their choices with historical arguments. Some of the documents are included in the online
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Preface
exhibition, “Preserving American Freedom,” created by the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
Taken together, the documents in these volumes suggest the ways
in which American freedom has changed and expanded over time.
But they also remind us that American history is not simply a narrative of continual progress toward greater and greater freedom.
While freedom can be achieved, it may also be reduced or rescinded.
It can never be taken for granted.
Eric Foner
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V OICES OF
F REEDOM
A Documentary History
Fifth Edition
Vo l u m e 1
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CHAPTER 1
A New World
1. Adam Smith, The Results of Colonization
(1776)
Source: Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the
Wealth of Nations (London, 1776), Vol. 2, pp. 190–91, 235–37.
“The discovery of America,” the Scottish writer Adam Smith announced in his
celebrated work The Wealth of Nations, published in 1776, was one of “the two
greatest and most important events recorded in the history of mankind.”
Smith is regarded as the founder of modern economics. It is not surprising
that looking back nearly three centuries after the initial voyage of Christopher Columbus in 1492, Smith focused primarily on the economic results of
the conquest and colonization of North and South America. The influx of
goods from the New World, he insisted, greatly increased the “enjoyments” of
the people of Europe and the market for European goods. Nonetheless, Smith
did not fail to note the price paid by the indigenous population of the New
World, who suffered a dramatic decline in population due to epidemics, wars
of conquest, and the exploitation of their labor. “Benefits” for some, Smith
observed, went hand in hand with “dreadful misfortunes” for others—a
fitting commentary on the long encounter between the Old and New Worlds.
O f t h e A d va n ta g e s which Europe has derived from the Discovery of America, and from that of a Passage to the East Indies by the
Cape of Good Hope
1
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2
Vo i c e s o f F r e e d o m
What are [the advantages] which Europe has derived from the discovery and colonization of America?
The general advantages which Europe, considered as one great
country, has derived from the discovery and colonization of America, consist, first, in the increase of its enjoyments; and, secondly, in
the augmentation of its industry.
The surplus produce of America, imported into Europe, furnishes
the inhabitants of this great continent with a variety of commodities which they could not otherwise have possessed; some for conveniency and use, some for pleasure, and some for ornament, and
thereby contributes to increase thei …
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