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This discussion post should demonstrate you have thoughtfully considered the week’s content and be reflective in nature.  Discuss what it takes to set up an HR department or HR processes in a small company.  There are literally hundreds or thousands of resources.  Here’s one of the websites with a quick overview.  But every company with any employee needs to manage employee performance, discipline, laws, and engagement.  What can a small company do?
https://www.fool.com/the-blueprint/human-resources-for-small-business/ 

Chapter 17
Managing Global Human Resources
PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook
The University of West Alabama
Part Five | Employee Relations

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Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler
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17–*

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WHERE WE ARE NOW…

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Gary Dessler

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Gary Dessler
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More managers and employers today find themselves managing people internationally. The purpose of this chapter is to improve your effectiveness at applying your human resource knowledge and skills when global issues are involved. The topics we’ll discuss include the internationalization of business, inter-country differences affecting HR, improving international assignments through selection, and training and maintaining international employees.

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List the HR challenges of international business.
Illustrate with examples how intercountry differences affect HRM.
List and briefly describe the main methods for staffing global organizations.
Discuss some important issues to keep in mind in training, appraising, and compensating international employees.
Explain with examples how to implement a global human resource management program.

LEARNING OUTCOMES

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Gary Dessler
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HR and the Internationalization of Business
The Global Challenges

Coordinating market, product, and production plans on a worldwide basis
Creating organization structures capable of balancing centralized home-office control with adequate local autonomy
Extending HR policies and systems
to service staffing needs abroad

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Gary Dessler

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Gary Dessler
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Taking the company global triggers various management challenges. The employer has to install all those management systems it needs to manage its overseas activities. These management systems include organization structures, managerial controls, worldwide banking relationships, and, of course, human resource management systems for recruiting, selecting, training, and appraising and compensating its workers abroad.

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Challenges of International HRM
Deployment

Getting the right skills to where they are needed, regardless of geographic location
Knowledge and Innovation Dissemination

Spreading state-of-the-art knowledge and
practices throughout the organization regardless
of their origin
Identifying and Developing Talent
on a Global Basis

Identifying those who can function effectively in a global organization and developing their abilities

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Gary Dessler

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler
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Taking the company global triggers various management challenges. The employer has to install all those management systems it needs to manage its overseas activities. These management systems include organization structures, managerial controls, worldwide banking relationships, and, of course, human resource management systems for recruiting, selecting, training, and appraising and compensating its workers abroad.

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Intercountry Differences Affecting HRM
International
Human Resource Management
Labor
relations
Political/Legal
systems
Economic
systems
Cultural factors and ethics issues

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Gary Dessler

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler
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Companies operating only within the United States generally have the luxury of dealing with a relatively limited set of economic, cultural, and legal variables. A company operating multiple units abroad doesn’t face such homogeneity. Managers have to be cognizant of and generally adapt their human resource policies and practices to cope with the cultural, political, legal, and economic differences among countries.

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Global Differences and Similarities
in HR Practices
International
HRM

Training and development practices
Use of pay and
other incentives

Purpose of performance appraisal
Personnel
selection
procedures

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Gary Dessler

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Gary Dessler
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The wide variations in human resource management practices among companies around the world impact on and create complexity in the development of international HRM practices. A practice that works in one country may not work at all in another country and may even be illegal.

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Staffing the Global Organization
International staffing: Home or local?

Expatriates (expats)
Home-country nationals
Third-country nationals
Offshoring

Having local employees abroad do jobs that the firm’s domestic employees previously did in-house
Offshoring Issues

Effective local supervisory/management structure
Screening and required training for locals
Local compensation policies and working conditions

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Gary Dessler

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Gary Dessler
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Filling a company’s jobs abroad has traditionally been the heart of international human resource management. The process involves identifying and selecting the people who will fill the positions, and then placing them in those positions.
Offshoring and its increasing popularity raises important international staffing issues.

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Management Values and
International Staffing Policy
Ethnocentric
Geocentric

Top Management Values

Polycentric

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Gary Dessler

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Gary Dessler
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Experts classify top executives’ values related to how international operations are staffed as ethnocentric, polycentric, or geocentric.

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Selecting Expatriate Managers
Adaptability Screening

Assessing the assignee’s (and spouse’s)
probable success in handling the foreign transfer.
Overseas Assignment Inventory
A test that identifies the characteristics and attitudes international assignment candidates should have.
Realistic Previews

Cover problems to expect in the new job, as well as the cultural benefits, problems, and idiosyncrasies
of the country.

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Gary Dessler
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Adaptability screening aims to assess the expatriate assignees’ (and spouses’) probable success in handling the foreign transfer, and to alert the firm to issues (such as the impact on children) the move may involve and which may affect the assignee’s success in completing the international assignment.

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FIGURE 17–2 Five Factors Important in International Assignee Success and Their Components
I. Job Knowledge and Motivation
Managerial ability
Organizational ability
Imagination
Creativity
Administrative skills
Alertness
Responsibility
Industriousness
Initiative and energy
High motivation
Frankness
Belief in mission and job
Perseverance
II. Relational Skills
Respect
Courtesy
Display of respect
Kindness
Empathy
Nonjudgmental
Integrity
Confidence
III. Flexibility/Adaptability
Resourcefulness
Ability to deal with stress
Flexibility
Emotional stability
Willingness to change
Tolerance for ambiguity
Adaptability
Independence
Dependability
Political sensitivity
Positive self-image
IV. Extracultural Openness
Variety of outside interests
Interest in foreign cultures
Openness
Knowledge of local language(s)
Outgoingness and extraversion
Overseas experience
V. Family Situation
Adaptability of spouse and family
Spouse’s positive opinion
Willingness of spouse to live abroad
Stable marriage

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Figure 17-2 shows the five items identified in one study that asked international assignees from various countries to specify which traits were important for success in a foreign assignment.

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FIGURE 17–3
Overseas Assignment
Inventory

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Gary Dessler

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Many firms also use tests such as the Overseas Assignment Inventory (OAI). This identifies the characteristics and attitudes international assignment candidates should have. Its publisher establishes local norms and conducts ongoing validation studies. Figure 17-3 illustrates the OAI.

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Inability of spouse
to adjust
Inability to cope
with overseas responsibilities
Lack of cultural
skills

Why Expatriate
Assignments Fail
Personality of expatriate
Personal
intentions
Family
pressures

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Gary Dessler

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Gary Dessler
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Several factors can impact on the likelihood that an expatriate assignment will be successful.

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Making Expatriate Assignments Successful
Realistic previews
Careful screening
Cultural and language training
Improved benefits package

Improved orientation

Helping
Expatriate Assignments Succeed

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Gary Dessler

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Gary Dessler
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Many employers post expatriates abroad, but often assignments fail. Understanding the main potential problems and what actions to take to make a successful assignment are important management skills.

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Orienting and Training Employees on International Assignment
Predeparture training is needed on:

The impact of cultural differences on
business outcomes
How attitudes (both negative and positive)
are formed and how they influence behavior
Factual knowledge about the target country
Language and adjustment and adaptation skills

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Gary Dessler

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler
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When it comes to the orientation and training required for success overseas, the practices of most U.S. employers reflect more talk than substance. Executives tend to agree that international assignees do best when they receive the special training (in things like language and culture) that they require. However, few companies actually provide such training.

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Trends in Expatriate Training
Use of returning managers as resources to cultivate
the “global mind-sets” of their home-office staff.
Use of software and the Internet for cross-cultural training.
Rotating assignments that permit professional growth.
Management development centers where executives hone their overseas skills.
Classroom programs provide overseas executives with educational opportunities similar to stateside programs.
Continuing, in-country cross-cultural training.

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Gary Dessler

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Gary Dessler
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This slide lists some of the methods that firms use to provide continuing, in-country cross-cultural training during the early stages of an overseas assignment.

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Compensating Expatriates
The “Balance Sheet Approach”

Home-country groups of expenses—income taxes, housing, goods and services, and discretionary expenses—are the focus of attention.
The employer estimates what each of these four expenses is in the expatriate’s home country,
and what each will be in the host country.
The employer then pays any differences such
as additional income taxes or housing expenses.

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Gary Dessler

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Gary Dessler
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The most common approach to formulating expatriate pay is to equalize purchasing power across countries, a technique known as the balance sheet approach.
Table 17-1 in the textbook illustrates the balance sheet approach for someone transferring from the U.S. to Belgium.

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TABLE 17–1 The Balance Sheet Approach (Assumes U.S. Base Salary of $80,000)

Annual Expense Chicago, U.S. Brussels, Belgium
(US$ Equivalent) Allowance

Housing & utilities $35,000 $67,600 $32,600

Goods & services 6,000 9,500 3,500

Taxes 22,400 56,000 33,600

Discretionary income 10,000 10,000 0

Total $73,400 $143,100 $69,700

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Incentives for International Assignments
Foreign Service Premiums

Financial payments over and above regular base pay, and typically range between 10% and 30% of base pay
Hardship Allowances

Payments to compensate expatriates
for exceptionally hard living and working conditions at certain foreign locations
Mobility Premiums

Lump-sum payments to reward employees for moving from one assignment to another

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Gary Dessler
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Employers use incentives to encourage participation in international assignments. Foreign service premiums are financial payments over and above regular base pay. Hardship allowances compensate expatriates for hard living and working conditions at certain foreign locations. Mobility premiums are lump-sum payments to reward employees for moving from one assignment to another.

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Steps in Establishing a Global Pay System
Identify any gaps in existing rewards systems.
Develop a global compensation philosophy framework.
Systematize pay systems worldwide.
Adapt global pay policies to local conditions.
Conduct an ongoing pay policies program assessment.

1

2

3

4

5

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Gary Dessler
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Balancing global consistency in compensation with local considerations starts with establishing a rewards program that supports the employer’s strategic needs. In practice, doing so involves five steps (probably over several years).

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Appraising Expatriate Managers
Challenges

Determining who should appraise the manager.
Deciding on which factors to base the appraisal.
Improving the Expatriate Appraisal Process

Stipulate the assignment’s difficulty level, and
adapt the performance criteria to the situation.
Weigh evaluation more toward on-site manager’s appraisal than toward that of the home-site manager.
If home-office manager does appraisal, use a former expatriate from same overseas location for advice.

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Gary Dessler
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Several things complicate the task of appraising an expatriate’s performance. The questions of who will appraise the expatriate and which performance measures to use are crucial.

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International Labor Relations
Industry-wide centralization
Content and scope of bargaining

Employer organization

Multiple union recognition
Characteristics of European Labor Relations

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Gary Dessler
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Firms opening subsidiaries abroad will find substantial differences in labor relations practices among countries and regions. This is important, because, while union membership is dropping in the United States, it is still relatively high abroad, and unions abroad therefore tend to be more influential. Union-employer relations vary markedly across different European countries.

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Terrorism, Safety, and Global HR
Taking Protective Measures

Crisis management teams
Intelligence services
Kidnapping and Ransom (K&R) Insurance

Crisis situations
Kidnapping: employee is a hostage
until employer pays a ransom
Extortion: threatening bodily harm
Detention: holding employee without
any ransom demand
Threats to property or products unless
employer makes a payment

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Gary Dessler

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The increased threat of terrorism is affecting human resource activities in many ways. Prospective expatriates are increasingly reluctant to take their families abroad, and those who do are demanding more compensation. Travel between countries is becoming more difficult. And for employees and facilities abroad, employers have had to institute more comprehensive safety plans, as well as other measures.

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Repatriation: Problems and Solutions
Problem

Making sure that the expatriate and his or her family don’t feel that the company has left them adrift.
Solutions

Match the expat and his or her family with
a psychologist trained in repatriation issues.
Make sure the expat always feels “in the loop”
with what’s happening back at the home office.
Provide formal repatriation services when
the expat returns home.

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Gary Dessler

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Gary Dessler
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A worrisome fact about sending employees abroad is that 40% to 60% of them will probably quit within 3 years of returning home. Given the investment in training and sending these high-potential people abroad, it makes sense to do everything possible to make sure they stay with the firm. For this, formal repatriation programs can be quite useful.

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How to Implement a Global HR System
Best practices in developing worldwide human resource policies and practices:

Form global HR networks that make local HR managers a part of global teams.
Remember that it’s more important to standardize ends and competencies than specific methods.

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Gary Dessler

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Gary Dessler
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With employers increasingly relying on local rather than expatriate employees, transferring one’s selection, training, appraisal, pay, and other human resource management practices abroad is a top priority.
Employers who successfully implement global HR systems do so by applying several best practices. This enables them to install uniform global human resource policies and practices around the world. The basic idea is to develop systems that are acceptable to employees in units around the world, and ones that the employers can implement more effectively.

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Making the Global HR System
More Acceptable
Best practices for making a global HR system
more acceptable to local managers:

Remember that global systems are more accepted in
truly global organizations.
Investigate pressures to differentiate and determine
their legitimacy.
Try to work within the context of a strong corporate culture.
Implementing the global HR system:

Constant contact: “You can’t communicate enough.”
Dedicate adequate resources for a global HR effort.

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Gary Dessler

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Gary Dessler
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Employers engage in three best practices so that the global human resource systems they develop will be acceptable to local managers around the world.

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TABLE 17–2 Summary of Best Global HR Practices
Work within existing local systems—integrate global tools into local systems
Create a strong corporate culture
Create a global network for system development— global input is critical
Treat local people as equal partners in system development
Assess common elements across geographies
Focus on what to measure and allow flexibility in how to measure
Allow for local additions beyond core elements
Differentiate when necessary
Train local people to make good decisions about which tools to use and how to do so
Communicate, communicate, communicate!
Dedicate resources for global HR efforts
Know, or have access to someone who knows, the legal requirements in each country

Do . . .
Try to do everything the same way everywhere
Yield to every claim that “we’re different”—make them prove it
Force a global system on local people
Use local people just for implementation
Use the same tools globally, unless you can show that they really work and are culturally appropriate
Ignore cultural differences
Let technology drive your system design—you can’t assume every location has the same level of technology investment and access
Assume that “if we build it they will come”—you need to market your tools
or system and put change management strategies in place

Don’t . . .

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Gary Dessler

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Gary Dessler
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Table 17-2 below summarizes best practices for instituting global HR systems.

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K E Y T E R M S
codetermination
expatriates (expats)
home-country nationals
third-country nationals
ethnocentric
polycentric
geocentric
adaptability screening
foreign service
premiums
hardship allowances
mobility premiums

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Gary Dessler
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All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.

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Gary Dessler
Copyright © 2011 Pearson …

PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook
The University of West Alabama
Chapter 18
Managing Human Resources in Entrepreneurial Firms
Part Five | Employee Relations

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Gary Dessler

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler
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WHERE WE ARE NOW…

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Gary Dessler

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Gary Dessler
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The main purpose of this chapter is to help you apply what you know about human resource management to running a small business. The main topics we’ll address include the small business challenge; using Internet and government tools to support the HR effort; leveraging small size with familiarity, flexibility, fairness, and informality; using professional employer organizations; and managing HR systems, procedures, and paperwork.

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Explain why human resource management in small companies is different from that in larger companies.
Give at least five specific examples of how you would use the Internet and government tools to support the HR effort in a small business.
Answer the question, “Why are familiarity, flexibility, and informality important tools that entrepreneurs can use to improve human resource management practices in their small businesses?”
Explain what professional employers’ organizations are and how entrepreneurs can use them.
Describe how HR systems traditionally evolve in a small business and give examples of how small businesses can use human resource management information systems.

LEARNING OUTCOMES

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Gary Dessler

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Gary Dessler
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The Small Business Challenge
Why Entrepreneurship Is Important

Over one-half of the U.S. labor force works
for small firms.
Over 600,000 small businesses are created annually.
Three-fourths of employment growth comes from small firms.
Why Is HRM Important to Small Businesses?

Growth of any small business depends on effective HR activities.
Getting and keeping large customers requires compliance with international quality (HR) standards.

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Gary Dessler

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler
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Anyone interested in small businesses (or human resource management) needs to understand how managing human resources in small firms is different from doing so in larger firms.

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Size of
HR staff
Priority of
HR issues
Informality of HR practices

How Small Business Human Resource Management Is Different

Entrepreneur’s effect on HRM

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Gary Dessler

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler
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Managing human resources in small firms is different for four main reasons: size, priorities, informality, and the nature of the entrepreneur.

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The Entrepreneur’s Risky Human Resource Management Situation
Underdeveloped HRM creates competitive disadvantage
Lack of specialized HR expertise
Compliance with compensation regulations and laws
Lack of HRIS systems creates inefficiencies and data entry errors

Increased potential for workplace litigation not addressed

HR Risks in
Small Businesses

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Gary Dessler

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Gary Dessler
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The lack of attention of HRM matters and lack of expertise means that entrepreneurs face at least five HR-type risks in managing a small business.

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Why HRM Is Important to Small Businesses
Effective HRM:

Is a competitive necessity for small firms.
Makes small firms more successful .
Helps small firms get and keep large customers.
Is necessary to meet ISO-9000 requirements
for competing internationally.

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Gary Dessler
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Smart entrepreneurs take these risks to heart. Small firms need all the advantages they can get, and for them effective human resource management is both a competitive necessity and a requirement for competing in global markets.

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Complying with Employment Laws:
DOL: www.DOL.gov/elaws/firststep
www.dol.gov/esa/whd/flsa
EEOC: wwww.EEOC.gov/employers/smallbusinesses.html
OSHA: www.OSHA.gov
www.OSHA.gov/dcsp/smallbusiness/index.html
Employment Planning and Recruiting:
DOL: http://online.onetcenter.org
Employment Selection
Wonderlic: www.wonderlic.com
Employment Training
AMA: www.amanet.org
SHRM: www.shrm.org
SBA: www.SBA.gov/training
NAM: wwwnamvu.com
Using Internet and Government Tools
To Support The HR Effort

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Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler
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Entrepreneurs can use the Internet sites and government tools listed in this slide to support the HR effort in a small business.

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FIGURE 18–1 FirstStep Employment Law Advisor

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Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler
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18–*
Figure 18-1 shows the U.S. Department of Labor’s “FirstStep Employment Law Advisor,” which helps small employers determine which laws apply to their business.

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FIGURE 18–2 Sample DOL elaws Advisors
The Coverage and Employment Status Advisor helps identify which workers are employees covered by the FLSA.
The Hours Worked Advisor provides information to help determine which hours spent in work-related activities are considered FLSA “hours worked” and, therefore, must be paid.
The Overtime Security Advisor helps determine which employees are exempt from the FLSA minimum wage and overtime pay requirements under the Part 541 overtime regulations.
The Overtime Calculator Advisor computes the amount of overtime pay due in a sample pay period based on information from the user.
The Child Labor Rules Advisor answers questions about the FLSA’s youth employment provisions, including at what age young people can work and the jobs they can perform.
The Section 14(c) Advisor helps users understand the special minimum wage requirements for workers with disabilities.

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Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler
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18–*
FIGURE 18-2 presents a sampling of the DOL elaws Advisors Web tools available to entrepreneurs.

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FIGURE 18–3
OSHA Web Site

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Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler
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Figure 18-3 shows OSHA’s Web site which provides, among other things, easy access to the OSHA Small Business Handbook, which contains practical information for small business owners, including industry-specific safety and accident checklists.

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FIGURE 18–4 Wonderlic Personnel Test: Part of a Sample Report

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Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler
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FIGURE 18-4 shows partial results of a sample report of the Wonderlic Personnel Test.

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Employment Training
Private
vendors
Small Business Administration (SBA)

Training Resources for Small Businesses

National Association of Manufacturers
(NAM)

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Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler
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FIGURE 18–5
Part of Small Business
Administration’s Virtual
Campus for Small
Business Training

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Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler
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Figure 18-5 shows the federal government’s Small Business Administration (www.SBA.gov/training) virtual campus that offers online courses, workshops, publications, and learning tools aimed toward supporting entrepreneurs.

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Having flexibility in providing
work-life benefits and rewards
Using simple, informal employee selection procedures
Treating nonfamily employees fairly and equitably
Maintaining effective communications with employees

Providing flexibility in employee
training procedures

Leveraging the Small Firm Size Advantage

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Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler
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Small businesses need to capitalize on their strengths, so in dealing with employees they should capitalize on their smallness. Smallness should translate into personal familiarity with each employee’s strengths, needs, and family situation. And it should translate into the luxury of being able to be relatively flexible and informal in the human resource management policies and practices the company follows. Smaller businesses often need to adapt quickly to environmental realities like competitive challenges. This means that entrepreneurs tend to conduct matters on an informal, reactive basis with a short time horizon.

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Building Communication
Online reporting
Newsletters
Online information

Building Effective Communications
in Small Businesses

The Huddle

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Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler
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Effective communications are important for any manager, but especially for those managing small businesses. In a small restaurant or retail shop, one or two disgruntled employees can destroy the business’ quality service. Yet small business owners generally don’t have the means to implement expensive communications programs. That’s why simple programs like these are important.

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Using Professional Employer
Organizations (PEO)
Dedicated HR support
Group
benefits
Paperwork
reduction
Reasons for Employers To Use a PEO
Decreased
liability

Higher
performance

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Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler
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Employers turn to PEOs for the reasons listed in this slide.

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Guidelines for Finding and Working with PEOs
Conduct a needs analysis.
Review the services of all PEO firms you’re considering.
Determine if the PEO is accredited.
Check the provider’s bank, credit, and professional references.
Understand how the employee benefits are funded.
See if the provider contract assumes the employment law compliance liabilities in the applicable states.
Review the service agreement carefully.
Investigate how long the PEO has been in business.
Check out the prospective PEO’s staff.
Ask how will the firm deliver its services.
Ask about upfront fees and how these are determined.
Periodically get proof that payroll taxes and insurance premiums are being paid properly and that any legal issues are handled correctly.

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Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler
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Small business managers need to choose and manage the PEO relationship carefully. Suggestions for doing so are listed in this slide.

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Managing HR Systems, Procedures,
And Paperwork
Employee records
are compiled on forms from office supply companies and maintained in physical files
Manual HRM
system

One or more packaged systems for automating individual HR tasks, such as applicant tracking and performance appraisal
Computerized HRM system

Interrelated components collect, process, store, and disseminate information to support decision making, coordination, control, analysis, and visualization of an organization’s HRM activities
Human Resource Management Information System (HRIS)

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Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler
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As the small business grows, it becomes increasingly unwieldy and uncompetitive to rely on manual HR systems. Most small- to medium-sized firms begin computerizing individual human resource management tasks. As companies continue to grow, they turn to integrated human resource information systems (HRIS).

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TABLE 18–1 Some Important Employment Forms

New Employee Forms Current Employee Forms Employee
Separation Forms

Application
New Employee Checklist
Employment Interview
Reference Check
Telephone Reference Report
Employee Manual Acknowledgement
Employment Agreement
Employee Application Disclaimer
Probationary Evaluation Employee Status Change Request
Employee Record
Performance Evaluation
Warning Notice
Vacation Request
Probation Notice
Job Description
Direct Deposit Acknowledgement
Absence Report
Disciplinary Notice
Employee Secrecy Agreement
Grievance Form
Expense Report
401(k) Choices Acknowledgement
Injury Report Retirement Checklist
Termination Checklist
COBRA Acknowledgement
Unemployment Claim
Employee Exit Interview

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Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler
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Table 18-1 lists some the many forms you could conceivably need even for a small business.

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Human Resource Management Information Systems (HRIS)
Levels of Information Systems

Transaction processing systems
Management information systems (MIS)
Executive support systems
Benefits of HRIS

Improved transaction processing
Online self-processing
Improved reporting capability
HR systems integration
HR intranets

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Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler
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18–*
Companies need information systems to get their work done. The term information system refers to the interrelated people, data, technology, and organizational procedures a company uses to collect, process, store, and disseminate information. Of course, as the company grows, it makes sense to computerize its information systems.

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All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.

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Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler

Human Resources Management 12e
Gary Dessler
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