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Using reflective writing as a critical thinking process, consider your researcher positionality as a doctoral-level qualitative researcher and offer a reflective discussion that encompasses four to five paragraphs:After reviewing the Week 8 Resources and Figure 8.1, use writing-as-inquiry to reflect on the aspects of yourself as a scholar and qualitative researcher and begin to articulate how you would describe your own researcher positionality.Review the five-course learning objectives (CLOs, see them listed again below) and assess the new learning you have gained in this course and how you will apply it to your future qualitative research design.Reflect on the gains and challenges in this course experience, and evaluate the current state of your ability to offer a substantive rationale for the choice of the qualitative method for doctoral-level research and the justification of a specific qualitative research design to explore a focused educational problem.Finally, consider the additional development you will need as you continue your coursework and your development as a doctoral qualitative researcher and your researcher positionality.Length: 4-5 paragraphs (1–1.5 pages)References: Optional





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Qualitative Research Design Rationale
Lenard Hudnal
Submitted to Northcentral University
School of Education
in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of
San Diego, California
In this research, the data to be collected is aimed at reflecting the social and physical effects
of sport among adolescents. The theory developed in this research study tends to explain that
there is a relationship between sports and its physical and social effects among adolescents.
Various data collection techniques to be used include the use of questionnaires and obtaining
data from secondary sources. The target population in this research are adolescents since it aims
to identify the effect of sport on them.
Purpose of the study
This research aims to identify the relationship that exists between teenagers and sports. This
relationship is represented in terms of the physical and social effects they have of adolescents.
Research Question
What is the social and physical effect of sport on adolescents?
Method and Design
Justification for the choice of the qualitative approach to examine an educational
research problem.
The research problem is the physical and social effects of sports on teenagers. Therefore, the
choice of qualitative method is the grounded theory, which is a systematic process of conducting
qualitative research that is directed towards the development of a theory. The grounded theory
has considerable significance since it discloses accurate guidelines for conducting qualitative
research. For the purpose of identifying the physical and social effects of sports of teenagers, the
grounded theory streamlines the data collection method and analysis (Charmaz, 2003). A few
challenges are brought about by the grounded theory, which includes the consumption of too
much time on analysis.
Justification for the choice of research design as appropriately aligned with the
qualitative method.
Research design is the strategy chosen to integrate the various aspects of the study in a
logical way. This aspect allows the research problem to be addressed adequately. The research
design, in this case, is an experimental one that tries to prove a theory. Moreover, a qualitative
data analysis method is employed during the analysis of the theory. In this research, the social
and physical effects of sports are tested on teenagers, and the research design will assist in
explaining the relationship that exists between the two variables (Hussein et al. 2014).
Justification for the choice of sampling method and sample size as aligned with the
conventions of qualitative research and the specific research design proposed.
It is important to note that the target population in this research study are adolescent
individuals. The research aims at establishing the relationship that exists between sports and its
effects on them. The sampling method, in this case, is the random sample method that selects
individuals at random hence obtaining data from them. The sample size, on the other hand, has to
be within a manageable range. This aspect implies that the sample size has to favor the research
budget. A significant sample size may have more accuracy, but it may be expensive. However, a
small sample may be cheap, but it may provide inaccurate data. Hence, an average sample size is
favorable for the research (Amankwaa, 2016).
Justification for the choice of data collection method as aligned with the conventions of
qualitative research and the specific research design proposed.
The most appropriate data collection method is data collected from the target population.
This aspect is due to the fact that it is the target population being investigated, and they have
good knowledge of how the research variables affect them. The second data collection method is
the use of secondary sources to identify the physical and social effects of sports of teenagers. The
two data collection methods have the ability to provide accurate data for the research hence
allow the researchers to make a precise inference (Elliott, 2015). The most appropriate way of
obtaining data from the target populations is through the use of questionnaires, which will be
handed out to be filled then returned for analysis.
Justification for the choice of data analysis method as aligned with the conventions of
qualitative research and the specific research design proposed.
It is essential to note that the data collected in this research is qualitative, which means it is
data that is aimed at explaining a given theory. In this research, two data analysis methods
include content and narrative analysis. The content analysis breaks down documented
information from secondary sources, while narrative analysis examines information from other
sources that include data obtained from people through questionnaires. Both data analyses give
an accurate description of data collected from secondary sources and people (Mayring, 2004).
Describe the qualitative analysis software application to be used for the proposed for
the data analysis method proposed.
A computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software is an application that assists research
to analyses data collected using various means on a computer. NVivo is a qualitative data
analysis software with the ability to analyze both small and large data. The main advantage of
using NVivo is that the software collects and analyzes almost any data hence suitable for the
research design. Additionally, the software creates codes that identify the patterns in a data set.
The research aims to study teenagers and also obtain information from them. One new feature of
the NVivo software allows it to be linked with various social media platforms. It thus allows
easy data access from teenagers who are frequent users of social media (Triangle Admin, 2015).
Amankwaa, L. (2016). Creating Protocols for Trustworthiness in Qualitative Research. Journal
of Cultural Diversity, 23(3), 121–127. Retrieved from
Charmaz. (2003). Qualitative Research: Grounded Theory. Retrieved from;
Elliott, D. (2015). Secondary data analysis. Research in the college context: Approaches and
methods, 175-184.
Hussein, M. E., Hirst, S., Salyers, V., & Osuji, J. (2014). Using grounded theory as a method of
inquiry: Advantages and disadvantages. The Qualitative Report, 19(27), 1-15.
Mayring, P. (2004). Qualitative content analysis. A companion to qualitative research, 1, 159176.
Triangle Admin. (2015). Benefits of Using NVivo For Data Management. Retrieved From;
Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software Evaluation
Lenard Hudnal
NVivo and
Selection Criteria
Minimum System
Structure of the The user
data or work
interface (UI)
Interoperability and
data export
According to research on the selection criteria above, Hyper Research is better than
NVivo for use in qualitative data analysis. When choosing a Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data
Analysis Software (CQDAS), there are many functionality features to analyze for each package
(Lewins & Silver, 2009). Hyper Research software is cross-platform and requires minimum
space for installation as recommended by the developer. Cross-platform means that it can operate
on both Windows and Macintosh platforms. A file created on Windows PC can open on MAC
OS. It requires a minimum space of 41 Megabytes in any computer (Silver & Silver, 2010). On
the other hand, NVivo runs mostly on Windows and sometimes on Mac platform and requires
eight gigabytes free space on the hard disk and four gigabytes of random access memory (RAM).
It also requires an internet connection. The minimum system requirements for Hyper Research
are attainable; hence it is the best option for me to use in qualitative data analysis. Additionally,
hyper research has external databases in that source files are accessible by the study but not
contained in it. On the contrary, in the NVivo package, all the data is imported into one file. In
case of software failure, it is easy to recover data contained Hyper Research cases as compared
to the one project file in NVivo, which loses all the data. This makes the Hyper Research method
better for use in my project.
Furthermore, considering the user interface (UI) for the two CQDAS packages, Hyper
Research has more appealing multi-window interface that does not require a powerful computer.
It contains hyperlinks and case cards to text and multimedia data. The NVivo user interface
includes specific context ribbons and navigation views which make it complex to use. The
simplicity of the Hyper Research package makes it more reliable and easy to use. Additionally,
the hyper research package has a Word Cruncher and SPSS Export function that enables a
researcher to bridge the qualitative-quantitative gap (Green, 2011). Finally, hyper research
method has high import/export capabilities over all platforms as compared to NVivo.
Interoperability makes it more useful to us students because we can carry our analysis on
different machines (Schiller, 2019).
Green, R. A. (2011). Software for Linking Concepts. In R. A. Green, Case study research: a
program evaluation guide for librarians (pp. 96-100). Santa Barbara: Santa Barbara,
Calif. : Libraries Unlimited, ©2011.
Lewins, A., & Silver, C. (2009, April). Choosing a CQDAS Package. Retrieved from Surrey:
Schiller, H. I. (2019, October 9). Research Tools Workshop. Retrieved from
Silver, A., & Silver, C. (2010, August 10). HyperRESEARCH: Distinguishing features and
functions. Retrieved from Surrey:
 Strengths

Fosters creativity-the researcher is not confined to testing preconceived hypothesis, but rather explores
empirical data to identify associations

Has a systematic data analysis protocol

It is instinctive-this design allows intensive engagement with the data

Allows researchers to conceptualize-researcher can generate valid concepts from data (El Hussein et al.
 Challenges

Time consuming-open data coding is laborious and exhaustive

Vulnerable to methodological errors-complexity of this approach exposes novice researchers to an array
of technical errors (Pulla, 2016)

Has numerous approaches


Accuracy in relating theory to practice-this approach allows researchers to evaluate
associations between theory and practice

Efficient in hypothesis formulation- case studies lead to identification of unanticipated

Discloses pertinent correlations- intensive analysis of a case allows the researcher to unearth
crucial details

Lack of rigor-reliability and internal validity are questionable (Lock and Seele, 2018)

Potential of collecting useless data-researcher may collect vast quantities of data of minimal
scientific value (Crowe et al. 2011)

Conceptualizing an inappropriate case
 Both
research methodologies are guided by a scientific framework and lead to the
collection of comprehensive data on the subject
 These
designs have a prescribed approach for data analysis which ensures that the
gathered data is critically and accurately analyzed to give valid and reliable
 The
designs confer some degree of freedom to the researcher, which creates room
for creativity and exploration of instinctive ideologies, which may not be
particularly compatible with other designs
 Researcher bias
is minimal in these designs which fosters reliability of research
findings and the generalization of the findings
 Importantly,
these study designs allow the researcher to capture the actual state of
events regardless of their research prowess
 Grounded
theory is a design marked with a logical procedure of analyzing
 The
design engages inductive reasoning
 Research
 It
framed by this designs may start in the form of the question
may also begin with some sets of qualitative data
 Researchers
utilize codes to tag data they have collected

It encompasses various traditions in positivism and sociology

Its principle stresses on the significance of social engagement

Based on the design, human beings can interpret the world by using symbols

One will realize the behaviors of human beings based on the symbols

The researcher will learn about the world by interpreting the human engagements

Crowe, S., Cresswell, K., Robertson, A., Huby, G., Avery, A., & Sheikh, A. (2011). The case study
approach. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 11(100).

El Hussein, M., Hirst, S., Salyers, V., & Osuji, J. (2014). Using Grounded Theory as a Method of Inquiry:
Advantages and Disadvantages. The Qualitative
Report, 19(27), 1-15.

Holt, N. L., Neely, K. C., Slater, L. G., Camiré, M., Côté, J., Fraser-Thomas, J., … & Tamminen, K. A.
(2017). A grounded theory of positive youth development through sport based on results from a
qualitative meta-study. International review of sport and exercise psychology, 10(1), 1-49.

Johnson, J. S. (2015). Qualitative sales research: An exposition of grounded theory. Journal of
Personal Selling & Sales Management, 35(3), 262-273.

Leung, L. (2015). Validity, reliability, and generalizability in qualitative research. Journal of family
medicine and primary care, 4(3), 324.

Lock, I., & Seele, P. (2018). Gauging the Rigor of Qualitative Case Studies in Comparative Lobbying
Research. A Framework and Guideline for Research and Analysis. Journal Of Public Affairs, 18(4), 1-5.

Pulla, V. (2016). An Introduction to the Grounded Theory Approach in Social
Research. International Journal Of Social Work And Human Services
Practice, 4(4), 75-81.
Qualitative Data Quality Checklist
Lenard Hudnal
Qualitative Data Quality Checklist
Criteria for Data Trustworthiness Based on Cohen & Crabtree (2008) and Amankwaa (2016)
1. Did the researchers spend enough time observing, talking
to people, building relationships, checking for
misinformation coming from the informants?
2. Did the researchers use multiple theories, investigators,
and data sources to enhance comprehension as well as
ensure a robust and rich account of their study inquiry?
3. Did the researchers take their collected data, analyses,
conclusions, interpretations back to participants to
validate the trustworthiness of their account?
1. Did the authors achieve to provide a sense of authenticity?
2. Did the authors describe in a detailed manner every part
of their research (fully describing participants, procedures
and settings, length and location of interviews,
interviewee’s and interviewer’s reaction, recording
procedures, results, for instance, long quotes or interview
3. Was the sample enough for the study?
1. Did the researchers use an external audit to examine their
research process and product?
2. Did the research process follow all the established ethical
and professional guidelines?
3. Were data taken from a range of suitable settings,
respondents, and times?
4. Were quality and coding checks made? Did they
demonstrate adequate agreement?
1. Is the data used to support conclusions?
2. Were any methods utilized to control for any bias? Were
they adequate?
3. Did the authors consider compelling hypotheses and rival
4. Were the researchers self-aware and explicit as possible
about their personal values, assumptions, and biases?
Cohen, D. J., & Crabtree, B. F. (2008). Evaluative criteria for qualitative research in health care:
controversies and recommendations. The Annals of Family Medicine, 6(4), 331-339.
Amankwaa, L. (2016). Creating Protocols for Trustworthiness in Qualitative Research. Journal Of Cultural
Diversity, 23(3), 121–127. Retrieved from
Qualitative Data Analysis
Qualitative Data Analysis Methods
Lenard Hudnal
Qualitative Data Analysis Methods
Globally, research processes are accompanied by several infinite factors of consideration
which works towards the maximization of the formulated principles and procedures (Williams,
2003). Data collection marks one of the core factors depicted in any research design process;
however, the type of the specified method of data collection directly affects the core foundational
maximization towards the objected vision. Under this scope, the strategized kind of data
collection lies under the parameters of the use of administered questionnaire towards the
qualitative research design (Kirakowski, 1994). There exist different types of data depending on
the core objectives of the research, namely, qualitative and quantitative types of data. Therefore
the formulated questions in the questionnaire directly exhibit the collection of the qualitative
data, that is, through the use of open-ended and rigid questions.
The analysis of the qualitative data lies under several channels of evaluations, for
example, content analysis, narrative analysis, discourse analysis, and grounded theory (Mayring,
2004). However, concerning this analysis, the selected types of qualitative data are the content
analysis and narrative analysis. Qualitative type of data refers to the type of data that lies under
the dictation of the categorical variables under the authorization of constrictions of ‘what type.’
The first method of analysis is the content analysis; it illustrates the breakdown of documented
information. The sources of the recorded information include; texts, whereby the researcher
should gather the sources related to the type of analysis depending on the topic of study of the
entire research. This means that the researcher should first use diverse platforms to locate the
relevant source of the qualitative data and then evaluate the overall texts and extract the essential
details to help in the maximization of the strategized vision. On the other hand, the narrative
analysis involves evaluations of the contents from other sources, for example, recorded interview
sessions and related stories from the target population (Sgier, 2012). It requires the researcher to
search for these sources compressively and utilize the information to extract the qualitative data
of interest. For example, if the researcher was dealing with the identification of factors affecting
the field of industrialization, …
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