Select Page

Review “Common Tendencies in Perception” (pp. 119–123) section in the chapter and choose at least three to discuss. Think of a time when you have experienced each one. What were the outcomes? Would they have been different if the common tendency had not played a part in your perception? How might greater empathy (p.126) have helped the people involved communicate more smoothly? Note: Alternatively, you can use examples from “!2 Angry Men” movie for this assignment (look for video clips on youtube). the ebook is attached below so you can reference to chapter 4. no citations required. 1 page, double spaced, 12 pt font, times new roman response required.——————————————————————————————————-note #2: This is an exit task for my Communications 120 class and my instructor checks for little details, so please accomplish the response as if you were required to do it. Thank you
adler___interplay__the_process_of_interpersonal_communication_14th_edition_c2018_txtbk_1_.pdf

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Interplay
Interplay
The Process of Interpersonal Communication
FOURTEENTH EDITION
Ronald B. Adler
Santa Barbara City College
Lawrence B. Rosenfeld
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Russell F. Proctor II
Northern Kentucky University
New York • Oxford
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the
University’s objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing
worldwide. Oxford is a registered trademark of Oxford University Press in the UK and
certain other countries.
Published in the United States of America by Oxford University Press
198 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016, United States of America.
© 2018, 2015, 2013, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2001 by Oxford University Press
For titles covered by Section 112 of the US Higher Education
Opportunity Act, please visit www.oup.com/us/he for the latest
­
­information about pricing and alternate formats.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in
writing of Oxford University Press, or as expressly permitted by law, by license, or
under terms agreed with the appropriate reproduction rights organization. Inquiries
concerning reproduction outside the scope of the above should be sent to the Rights
Department, Oxford University Press, at the address above.
You must not circulate this work in any other form
and you must impose this same condition on any acquirer.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: Adler, Ronald B. (Ronald Brian), 1946– author. |
Rosenfeld, Lawrence B., author. | Proctor, Russell F., author.
Title: Interplay: the process of interpersonal communication / Ronald B.
Adler, Santa Barbara City College, Lawrence B. Rosenfeld, University of
North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Russell F. Proctor II, Northern Kentucky
University.
Description: Fourteenth edition. | New York, NY: Oxford University Press,
[2018]
Identifiers: LCCN 2017031955 | ISBN 9780190646257 (pbk.) | ISBN 9780190646264
(pbk.)
Subjects: LCSH: Interpersonal communication.
Classification: LCC BF637.C45 A33 2018 | DDC 302.2—dc23
LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2017031955
987654321
Printed by LSC Communications, United States of America
Brief Contents
Preface
PART
PART
PART
1
2
3
xv
FOUNDATIONS OF INTERPERSONAL
COMMUNICATION
1
Interpersonal Process 3
2
Culture and Interpersonal Communication 37
3
Interpersonal Communication and the Self
4
Perceiving Others
69
103
CREATING AND RESPONDING TO
MESSAGES
5
Language 135
6
Nonverbal Communication
7
Listening: Receiving and Responding 195
8
Emotions 227
165
DIMENSIONS OF INTERPERSONAL
RELATIONSHIPS
9
Dynamics of Interpersonal Relationships 259
10
Communication in Close Relationships: Friends, Family,
and Romantic Partners 291
11
Managing Conflict 323
12
Communication Climate
Glossary G-1
References R-1
Credits C-1
Author Index AI-1
Subject Index SI-1
353
Contents
Preface xv
PART
1
FOUNDATIONS OF INTERPERSONAL
COMMUNICATION
1
Interpersonal Process 3
Why We Communicate
4
Physical Needs 5
Identity Needs 6
Social Needs 7
Practical Needs 8
FEATURES
MEDIA CLIP: Solitude and Connection:
Wild 6
DARK SIDE OF COMMUNICATION:
Loneliness and the Internet: A Delicate
Balance 7
AT WORK: Communication and Career
Advancement 9
FOCUS ON RESEARCH: Tweeting: The
Channel Affects the Message 12
MEDIA CLIP: Pathologically Competent:
House of Cards 22
ASSESSING YOUR COMMUNICATION:
Your Use of Social Media 24
FOCUS ON RESEARCH: ­Sidestepping
Permanence: The Attraction of
Snapchat 27
WATCH AND DISCUSS: “Men Read Mean
Tweets to Female Sports Reporters” 31
2
The Communication Process
9
Early Models of Communication 9
Insights from the Transactional Communication Model
Communication Principles 13
The Nature of Interpersonal Communication 15
Communication Misconceptions 17
Communication Competence
19
Principles of Communication Competence 19
Characteristics of Competent Communication 21
Social Media and Interpersonal Communication
Characteristics of Social Media 23
Social Media and Relational Quality 28
Communicating Competently with Social Media
CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING
KEY TERMS
34
ACTIVITIES
34
29
33
Culture and Interpersonal Communication 37
Culture and Communication 38
Culture and Co-Culture 38
Intercultural Communication
vi
10
40
23
CO N T EN T S
MEDIA CLIP: Embracing Tradition and
Change: Meet the Patels 39
Interpersonal and Intercultural Dimensions
of Communication 42
Intercultural Differences as Generalizations 43
MEDIA CLIP: Straddling Cultures:
­black-ish 49
Cultural Values and Norms
FEATURES
DARK SIDE OF COMMUNICATION:
When “Harmless” Labels Do Harm
50
AT WORK: Organizations Are
Cultures 55
FOCUS ON RESEARCH: Saying “I’m
Sorry” in Japanese and English:
­Different Codes 58
ASSESSING YOUR COMMUNICATION:
What Is Your Intercultural
Communication Competence? 60
WATCH AND DISCUSS: “Momondo:
The DNA Journey” 62
FOCUS ON RESEARCH: Living in Another
Culture: Adapting and Adopting 63
43
High Versus Low Context 43
Individualism Versus Collectivism 44
Power Distance 46
Uncertainty Avoidance 47
Achievement Versus Nurturing 48
Co-Cultures and Communication 48
Race and Ethnicity 48
Gender Identity/Sexual Orientation 50
Age/Generation 51
(Dis)abilities 52
Socioeconomic Status 53
Codes and Culture 54
Verbal Codes 54
Nonverbal Codes 58
Developing Intercultural Communication
Competence 59
Motivation and Attitude 60
Tolerance for Ambiguity 61
Open-Mindedness 61
Knowledge and Skill 62
Patience and Perseverance 63
CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING
64
KEY TERMS 65
ACTIVITIES
3
66
Interpersonal Communication and the Self 69
Communication and the Self-Concept
70
How the Self-Concept Develops 71
Characteristics of the Self-Concept 73
The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy and Communication 76
vii
viii
CONTENTS
FEATURES
Presenting the Self
FOCUS ON RESEARCH: Does Instagram =
#Instasad? 73
Public and Private Selves 78
Characteristics of Impression Management 79
Face-to-Face Impression Management 80
Impression Management in Social Media 80
Impression Management and Honesty 83
WATCH AND DISCUSS: “Dove Evolution
Commercial” 74
MEDIA CLIP: Reflecting Years of
­Appraisal: This Is Us 75
AT WORK: Impression Management in
the Workplace 81
MEDIA CLIP: The Promise and Perils of
Online Relationships: Catfish: The TV
Show 82
DARK SIDE OF COMMUNICATION:
Talking Frankly About STDs 90
ASSESSING YOUR COMMUNICATION:
Online and Offline Self-Disclosure 93
77
Disclosing the Self 84
Self-Disclosure Factors 85
Models of Self-Disclosure 86
Benefits and Risks of Self-Disclosure 88
Guidelines for Self-Disclosure 91
Alternatives to Self-Disclosure 93
CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING
98
KEY TERMS 99
ACTIVITIES 100
4
Perceiving Others 103
The Perception Process 104
Reality Is Constructed 104
Steps in the Perception Process 106
FEATURES
FOCUS ON RESEARCH: Online Channels
Affect Perception 108
WATCH AND DISCUSS: “All That
We Share” 110
AT WORK: Sexual Harassment
and Perception 115
MEDIA CLIP: Master of Perception:
Sherlock 118
FOCUS ON RESEARCH: Hurtful
Communication: A Matter
of Perception 122
DARK SIDE OF COMMUNICATION:
Distorting Perception: The Gaslight
Effect 126
MEDIA CLIP: Gaining Empathy:
­Undercover Boss 128
ASSESSING YOUR COMMUNICATION:
Your Empathy Quotient 129
Influences on Perception
110
Access to Information 110
Physiological Influences 110
Psychological Influences 112
Social Influences 113
Cultural Influences 117
Common Tendencies in Perception 118
We Make Snap Judgments 119
We Cling to First Impressions 120
We Judge Ourselves More Charitably Than We Do Others 121
We Are Influenced by Our Expectations 122
We Are Influenced by the Obvious 123
We Assume Others Are Like Us 123
Synchronizing Our Perceptions 124
Perception Checking 124
Building Empathy 126
CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING 130
KEY TERMS 131
ACTIVITIES 131
CO N T EN T S
PART
2
ix
CREATING AND RESPONDING TO MESSAGES
5
Language 135
The Nature of Language
136
Language Is Symbolic 136
Language Is Rule-Governed 137
Language Is Subjective 139
Language and Worldview 139
FEATURES
MEDIA CLIP: Invented Languages: Game
of Thrones 137
FOCUS ON RESEARCH: The Negative
Consequences of Fat Talk 141
AT WORK: Swearing on the Job
144
DARK SIDE OF COMMUNICATION:
Sorry, Not Sorry 145
ASSESSING YOUR COMMUNICATION:
Sexist Language 146
The Impact of Language
141
Naming and Identity 141
Affiliation 142
Power and Politeness 143
Sexism and Racism 145
Precision and Vagueness 148
The Language of Responsibility 152
Gender and Language
156
WATCH AND DISCUSS: “Vague
Facebook Posts—Congressional
Hearings” 149
Extent of Gender Differences 156
Non-Gender Influences on Language Use 158
MEDIA CLIP: Damning with Faint Praise:
Florence Foster Jenkins 151
Social Media and Language
FOCUS ON RESEARCH: The Language of
Online Community 159
158
Online Language and Impression Management 158
Online Language and Gender 160
CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING
161
KEY TERMS 162
ACTIVITIES
6
162
Nonverbal Communication 165
Nonverbal Communication Defined 166
Characteristics of Nonverbal Communication 167
FEATURES
FOCUS ON RESEARCH: The Power of
Periods. In Texting. 171
ASSESSING YOUR COMMUNICATION:
Nonverbal Immediacy Behaviors 174
WATCH AND DISCUSS: “Body
Language” 175
MEDIA CLIP: A Life of Deception:
The Americans 176
MEDIA CLIP: In a Different Voice:
Speechless 179
Nonverbal Communication Is Always Occurring 167
Nonverbal Communication Is Primarily Relational 168
Nonverbal Communication Is Ambiguous 169
Nonverbal Communication Occurs in Mediated Messages 170
Nonverbal Communication Is Influenced by Culture and
Gender 170
Functions of Nonverbal Communication
Creating and Maintaining Relationships 172
Regulating Interaction 173
Influencing Others 175
Influencing Ourselves 175
172
x
CONTENTS
FOCUS ON RESEARCH: Nonverbal
Imitation: The Sincerest Form of
Flattery 180
Concealing/Deceiving 175
Managing Impressions 177
AT WORK: Let Your Voice Be Heard 183
Types of Nonverbal Communication
DARK SIDE OF COMMUNICATION: The
Inequality of “Lookism” 188
Body Movement 178
Touch 181
Voice 182
Distance 184
Territoriality 187
Time 187
Physical Attractiveness 188
Clothing 189
Physical Environment 189
CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING
178
190
KEY TERMS 191
ACTIVITIES
7
192
Listening: Receiving and Responding 195
The Nature of Listening
196
The Importance of Listening 196
Listening Defined 197
Listening Styles 199
FEATURES
AT WORK: Listening on the Job 197
ASSESSING YOUR COMMUNICATION:
Your Listening Styles 200
MEDIA CLIP: Multifaceted Listening:
The Profit 201
DARK SIDE OF COMMUNICATION:
The Myth of Multitasking 205
FOCUS ON RESEARCH: Responding
Helps Speakers Tell Their Stories 207
WATCH AND DISCUSS: “Brené Brown on
Empathy” 215
MEDIA CLIP: Responding Directively:
Scandal 219
FOCUS ON RESEARCH: Exchanging
Advice Online 220
The Challenge of Listening
202
Recognizing Barriers to Listening 202
Avoiding Poor Listening Habits 203
Components of Listening
204
Hearing 204
Attending 204
Understanding 205
Remembering 206
Responding 206
Types of Listening Responses
Silent Listening 208
Questioning 209
Paraphrasing 211
Empathizing 214
Supporting 216
Analyzing 218
207
CO N T EN T S
Evaluating 218
Advising 219
Which Response Type to Use? 221
CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING
222
KEY TERMS 223
ACTIVITIES
8
224
Emotions 227
What Are Emotions?
FEATURES
MEDIA CLIP: Intelligence of Another
Variety: The Big Bang Theory 228
WATCH AND DISCUSS: “The Marriage
Hack” 231
FOCUS ON RESEARCH: Managing Grief
with Humor 233
AT WORK: Emotional Labor on the
Job 236
DARK SIDE OF COMMUNICATION:
Fictional Characters, Real Feelings:
Parasocial Relationships 237
ASSESSING YOUR COMMUNICATION:
Your Emotional Intelligence 243
FOCUS ON RESEARCH: When Talking
About Feelings Makes Things
Worse 252
MEDIA CLIP: Self-Talk and Resilience:
Unbreakable Kimmy Schmidt 254
229
Physiological Changes 229
Nonverbal Behavior 230
Cognitive Interpretations 230
Verbal Expression 231
Influences on Emotional Expression
232
Personality 232
Culture 233
Gender 234
Social Conventions and Roles 235
Social Media 235
Emotional Contagion 237
Expressing Emotions Effectively
238
Recognize Your Feelings 238
Choose the Best Language 239
Share Multiple Feelings 241
Recognize the Difference Between Feeling and Acting 242
Accept Responsibility for Your Feelings 242
Choose the Best Time and Place to Express Your
Feelings 242
Managing Emotions
244
Facilitative and Debilitative Emotions 244
Thoughts Cause Feelings 245
Irrational Thinking and Debilitative Emotions 247
Minimizing Debilitative Emotions 251
Maximizing Facilitative Emotions 254
CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING
KEY TERMS 256
ACTIVITIES
256
255
xi
xii
CONTENTS
PART
3
DIMENSIONS OF INTERPERSONAL
RELATIONSHIPS
9
Dynamics of Interpersonal Relationships 259
Why We Form Relationships
FEATURES
DARK SIDE OF COMMUNICATION: The
Anguish of Abusive Relationships 263
260
Appearance 260
Similarity 261
Complementarity 262
Rewards 262
Competency 264
Proximity 265
Disclosure 265
MEDIA CLIP: The Power and Peril of
Disclosure: Homeland 265
Models of Relational Dynamics
FOCUS ON RESEARCH: Communicating
About Relational Baggage 268
Stages of Relational Development 266
Dialectical Tensions 273
FOCUS ON RESEARCH: The Dialectical
Tensions of Cell Phone Use 275
Communicating About Relationships
MEDIA CLIP: Finding Connection:
­Trainwreck 276
WATCH AND DISCUSS: “Couples Swap
Phones and Go Through Each Other’s
History” 277
ASSESSING YOUR COMMUNICATION:
Relational Maintenance 282
266
278
Content and Relational Messages 278
Maintaining and Supporting Relationships 280
Repairing Damaged Relationships 284
CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING
287
KEY TERMS 288
ACTIVITIES
288
AT WORK: Relational Repair on
the Job 284
10 Communication in Close Relationships: Friends,
Family, and Romantic Partners 291
Communication in Friendships
292
FEATURES
Types of Friendships 292
Friendships, Gender, and Communication 294
Friendship and Social Media 297
Communication in Successful Friendships 298
FOCUS ON RESEARCH: Close
Friendships: State of the Union 295
Communication in the Family
WATCH AND DISCUSS: “Can Men and
Women Be Just Friends?” 296
AT WORK: Social Media Relationships
with Coworkers 300
301
Creating the Family Through Communication 302
Patterns of Family Communication 304
Effective Communication in Families 307
CO N T EN T S
MEDIA CLIP: Voluntary Families:
Finding Dory 302
ASSESSING YOUR COMMUNICATION:
Your Family’s Communication
Pattern 307
FOCUS ON RESEARCH: Parental
Disclosures with Adult Children 309
MEDIA CLIP: Maybe “I Do,” Maybe I
Don’t: Married at First Sight 315
Communication in Romantic Relationships
CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING
319
KEY TERMS 320
ACTIVITIES
320
DARK SIDE OF COMMUNICATION:
Virtually Unfaithful: Emotional
Infidelity Online 318
11 Managing Conflict 323
What Is Conflict?
FEATURES
FOCUS ON RESEARCH: The Dangers of
Mind-Reading Expectations 326
MEDIA CLIP: Fighting over Scarce
Resources: Empire 327
DARK SIDE OF COMMUNICATION:
Ghosting: The Ultimate Silent
Treatment 329
WATCH AND DISCUSS: “Signs You’re
the Passive Aggressive Friend” 331
ASSESSING YOUR COMMUNICATION:
Your Method of Conflict Resolution 335
FOCUS ON RESEARCH: “We Have to
Talk”: Men and Women in Conflict 342
MEDIA CLIP: Hostile Takeover:
The Founder 345
AT WORK: Third-Party Dispute
Resolution 346
311
Characteristics of Romantic Relationships 312
Effective Communication in Romantic Relationships 316
324
Expressed Struggle 325
Interdependence 325
Perceived Incompatible Goals 325
Perceived Scarce Resources 326
Inevitability 326
Conflict Styles
327
Avoidance (Lose-Lose) 328
Accommodation (Lose-Win) 329
Competition (Win-Lose) 330
Compromise 331
Collaboration (Win-Win) 332
Which Style to Use? 334
Conflict in Relational Systems
336
Complementary and Symmetrical Conflict 336
Serial Arguments 338
Toxic Conflict: The “Four Horsemen” 339
Conflict Rituals 340
Variables in Conflict Styles
341
Gender 341
Culture 343
Conflict Management in Practice
CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING
KEY TERMS 350
ACTIVITIES
350
344
349
xiii
xiv
CONTENTS
12 Communication Climate 353
What Is a Communication Climate?
354
How Communication Climates Develop
Levels of Message Confirmation 356
Causes and Effects of Defensiveness 361
FEATURES
DARK SIDE OF COMMUNICATION:
Cyberbullying: Inflicting Pain
Online 355
ASSESSING YOUR COMMUNICATION:
Confirming and Disconfirming
Communication 358
FOCUS ON RESEARCH: Phubbing: Losing
Out to Your Partner’s Phone 359
MEDIA CLIP: Victimized by
Aggressiveness: Moonlight 360
FOCUS ON RESEARCH: A Blurt Can
Hurt 366
MEDIA CLIP: Changing the Climate, Ever
So Slowly: Doc Martin 369
WATCH AND DISCUSS: “Emotional
Correctness” 370
Creating Supportive Climates
362
Evaluation Versus Description 363
Control Versus Problem Orientation 364
Strategy Versus Spontaneity 365
Neutrality Versus Empathy 366
Superiority Versus Equality 367
Certainty Versus Provisionalism 368
Invitational Communication
370
The Language of Choice 371
Responding Nondefensively to Criticism 372
CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING
KEY TERMS 378
ACTIVITIES
AT WORK: Taking the High Road:
Keeping Cool Under Fire 373
Glossary G-1
References R-1
Credits C-1
Author Index AI-1
Subject Index SI-1
378
377
355
Preface
A wise editor once told us that any revision to a successful textbook should
be both familiar and fresh. It should include plenty of updated material,
but it should retain the essence of its time-tested approach. We have
worked hard to make sure this edition of Interplay achieves those goals.
This new edition builds on the approach that has served students and
professors over almost four decades. The accessible writing style is based
on the belief that even complicated ideas can be presented in a straightforward way. A variety of thought-provoking photos, sidebars, and cartoons
make the subject more interesting and compelling. In terms of its scholarly
grounding, Interplay cites more than 1,500 sources, nearly a third of which
are new to this edition. These citations have a strong communication focus,
as we continue to spotlight scholarship from our field. Research and theory
aren’t presented for their own sake, but rather to explain how the process
of interpersonal communication operates in everyday life.
NEW IN THIS EDITION
One effective way of incorporating new concepts and research is to offer
plenty of cutting-edge material in sidebars. Reviewers tell us these sidebars
are essential to Interplay’s success, so we’ve updated them across the board.
• Focus on Research boxes—18 of which are new to this edition—cover
timely subjects including the pros and cons of communicating via
Snapchat, cultural differences in how speakers apologize, the relationship between Instagram and social comparison, the role of punctuation in text messages, relational struggles caused by cell phone use,
disclosures between parents and their adult children, and the negative
effects of mind-reading expectations.
• Dark Side of Communication sidebars address problems including
how seemingly harmless labels can cause interpersonal damage,
talking frankly about STDs, saying “sorry” too often, the dangers of
multitasking, and the harmful effects of “ghosting.”
• Media Clips use both television shows and films to dramatize how
communication concepts operate in everyday life. New TV shows
include black-ish (co-cultural communication), This Is Us (self-­
concept), Game of Thrones (language), The Americans (deception),
Speechless (nonverbal communication), Unbreakable Kimmy Schmidt
(emotion management), and Empire (conflict). New feature films
include Wild (social needs), Meet the Patels (culture), Trainwreck (relational dial …
Purchase answer to see full
attachment