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Adolescents and adults are forced to make a variety of decisions every day that will impact their lives. Some of these decisions can be based on abstract and logical thinking (formal stage), but others require dialectical thought (post-formal stage).For this task, you will need to ask your family and friends to help you by telling you various situations in which they had to make important decisions (e.g., buying a car or home, which college to attend, or whom to date/marry). It would be best if you had at least one person between the ages of 15 to 20 and one person older than 30.Ask your family and friends to tell you about at least three of their biggest decisions and collect the following information:What were the three decisions?How did they figure out what decision to make (e.g., they made a list of pros/cons; they compared benefit and consequences; they evaluated based on their previous experiences or those of others)?Did parents/teachers/friends help them to decide and, if so, how?Did they make the best decision, based on what they knew at the time? What would they have done differently if deciding today?Evaluate the stories you collected. For each person, determine If you would classify them as formal operational or post-formal operational, based on how they made their decisions (i.e., basically using concepts in formal thinking, dialectical/post-formal thinking, or combination).What is the evidence for your evaluation?Based on the answer to whether they would make a different decision today, are they still in formal operational or have they progressed to post-formal operational?Your paper should be 1 page in length not including title and reference page and conform to CSU-Global Guide to Writing and APA (Links to an external site.). Include at least three scholarly references in addition to the course textbook. The CSU-Global Library is a good place to find these references.
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Colorado State University – Global Campus
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Title of Paper
Academic essays should begin with an introduction. The introduction will provide
readers with the context necessary for understanding your argument and the body of your paper.
When composing the introduction, think about what context or background information the
reader would benefit from knowing. Once your context is established, transition from that
context into your thesis statement. The thesis statement generally comes at the end of your
introduction and usually consists of a few sentences that sum up the argument for your paper
overall. Thesis statements should also provide a roadmap for the reader so that they can navigate
through the ideas present in the rest of your paper.
Level 1 Header
Headers are useful for organizing your paper. Level 1 headers are used with broad or
general topics in your paper. Depending on the topic, length, and genre of your assignment, you
might use only Level 1 headers. Level 1 headers should be bolded and centered. The longer and
more complex your argument is, the more you might benefit from using Level 2 and Level 3
headers. Level 4 and Level 5 headers exist, but they should only be used in manuscripts with
many topics and subtopics. Generally, if you choose to use subsections (Level 2–5 headers) in
your paper, you should have at least two subsections for each level of header. For more
information on how to use headings in your paper, visit the APA Style Blog.
Level 2 Header
Body paragraphs should follow the MEAL structure. This structure will help your ideas
build on one another in order to support your thesis statement and to develop your argument over
the course of your essay. Each body paragraph should consist of a claim, which also functions as
the topic sentence or the main idea of a paragraph. The claim should then be followed by
evidence. Evidence is typically source material that you either paraphrase or quote directly.
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Remember, APA style guidelines prefer paraphrasing to directly quoting a source. Evidence
should provide support for your main idea in the form of examples, statistics, facts, anecdotes,
etc. Next, your paragraph should include analysis. Analysis is your explanation of the preceding
evidence and its significance. In other words, you should not let the evidence speak for itself.
Through analysis, you can show the reader exactly how you interpret the evidence, how it
supports your claim for the paragraph, and how it supports your thesis statement. Finally, each
body paragraph should end with a sentence that functions as a conclusion for the paragraph. This
sentence can rephrase the claim for the paragraph, tie back to the thesis statement, or transition to
the idea you present in the next paragraph.
Level 2 Header
Whenever you use a source, it must be cited both in text and in the references. However,
there are two types of sources that should only be cited in text and do not need to be included on
the References page: (a) Sources that do not produce recoverable data and cannot be located by
the reader, such as personal communications, and (b) Religious texts and classical works, such as
the Bible, the Qur’an, and Greek or Roman works. Both your in-text citations and references
should follow APA style. In academic writing that follows APA style, it is important to
paraphrase source material whenever possible, as opposed to quoting the source directly. When
paraphrasing source material, you can use page numbers to point the reader to a specific portion
of the source, but this is optional. When paraphrasing, you should follow the paraphrased
material with an in-text citation that contains the author’s last name and the source’s year of
publication (Author, Year) or use a signal phrase to introduce the paraphrased material with the
author and year (ex: “According to Eriksson (2015)…”). When quoting source material directly, a
page number (p. ) or page range (pp. ) is always required. If the source does not include page
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numbers, use a paragraph number (para. ) instead. When citing in text, parenthetical citations
should appear as close to the source material as possible. The author’s name should never be
separate from the year of publication.
In-text citations point readers to the References page, which is a list of all the sources
used in your assignment. When formatting the References page, start a new page. Then, type and
center the word References at the top, but do not use any additional formatting (e.g., bold,
underline, italics, quotation marks, etc.). Alphabetize the references according to the first
author’s last name or by the name of the organization if there is no individual author for a text.
All references should have a hanging indent: The first line of each reference should be flush with
the left margin, and subsequent lines should be indented. Finally, each reference should follow
APA style, and the proper formatting will change depending on the type of source.
Conclusion
The last section or paragraph of your paper should be the conclusion. A conclusion
should reiterate the major points of your argument. To do this, think about developing your
thesis by adding more detail or by retracing the steps of your argument. You can recap major
sections for the reader. You can also summarize the primary supporting points or evidence you
discussed in the paper. The conclusion should not introduce any new information in order to
avoid confusing the reader. To end the paper, think about what you want your reader to do with
all the information you just presented. Explain what logical next steps might be taken in order to
learn more about this topic. Use the conclusion to establish the significance and importance of
your work, motivate others to build on what you’ve done in this paper, and encourage the reader
to explore new ideas or reach other conclusions.
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References
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d). Coping with a traumatic event. Retrieved
from https://www.cdc.gov/masstrauma/factsheets/public/coping.pdf
Chaitin, J., & Steinberg, S. (2013). “I can almost remember it now”: Between personal and
collective memories of massive social trauma. Journal of Adult Development, 21(1), 30–
42. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10804-013-9176-4
Eriksson, M. (2015). Managing collective trauma on social media: The role of Twitter after the
2011 Norway attacks. Media, Culture & Society, 38(3), 365–380.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0163443715608259
Kaplan, E. M. (2005). Trauma culture: The politics of terror and loss in media and literature.
Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Meek, A. (2011). Trauma and media. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203863190
National Institute of Mental Health. (2017). Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Retrieved
from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd.shtml

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